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Year : 2011  |  Volume : 3  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 449-452  

Antihyperlipidemic and antiatherogenic activities of Terminalia pallida Linn. fruits in high fat diet-induced hyperlipidemic rats

Department of Biochemistry, S.V. University, Tirupati 517 502, AP, India

Date of Submission11-Feb-2011
Date of Decision21-Mar-2011
Date of Acceptance30-Mar-2011
Date of Web Publication3-Sep-2011

Correspondence Address:
C Apparao
Department of Biochemistry, S.V. University, Tirupati 517 502, AP
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/0975-7406.84464

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Hyperlipidemia contributes significantly in the manifestation and development of atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease (CHD). Although synthetic lipid-lowering drugs are useful in treating hyperlipidemia, there are number of adverse effects. So the current interest has stimulated the search for new lipid-lowering agents with minimal side effects from natural sources. The present study was designed to investigate the antihyperlipidemic and antiatherogenic potentiality of ethanolic extract of Terminalia pallida fruits in high fat diet-induced hyperlipidemic rats. T. pallida fruits ethanolic extract (TPEt) was prepared using Soxhlet apparatus. Sprague-Dawley male rats were made hyperlipidemic by giving high fat diet, supplied by NIN (National Institute of Nutrition), Hyderabad, India. TPEt was administered in a dose of 100 mg/kg.b.w./day for 30 days in high fat diet-induced hyperlipidemic rats. The body weights, plasma lipid, and lipoprotein levels were measured before and after the treatment. TPEt showed significant antihyperlipidemic and antiatherogenic activities as evidenced by significant decrease in plasma total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels coupled together with elevation of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels and diminution of atherogenic index in high fat diet-induced hyperlipidemic rats. There was a significantly reduced body weight gain in TPEt-treated hyperlipidemic rats than in the control group. The present study demonstrates that TPEt possesses significant antihyperlipidemic and antiatherogenic properties, thus suggesting its beneficial effect in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases.

Keywords: High fat diet, hyperlipidemia, Terminalia pallida

How to cite this article:
Sampathkumar M T, Kasetti R B, Nabi S A, Sudarshan P R, Swapna S, Apparao C. Antihyperlipidemic and antiatherogenic activities of Terminalia pallida Linn. fruits in high fat diet-induced hyperlipidemic rats. J Pharm Bioall Sci 2011;3:449-52

How to cite this URL:
Sampathkumar M T, Kasetti R B, Nabi S A, Sudarshan P R, Swapna S, Apparao C. Antihyperlipidemic and antiatherogenic activities of Terminalia pallida Linn. fruits in high fat diet-induced hyperlipidemic rats. J Pharm Bioall Sci [serial online] 2011 [cited 2022 Aug 12];3:449-52. Available from:

Hyperlipidemia is characterized by elevated serum total cholesterol, low density and very low density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. Hyperlipidemia-associated lipid disorders are considered to cause atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. [1] Among these hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia are closely related to ischemic heart disease. Currently available hypolipidemic drugs have been associated with a number of side effects. [2] Herbal therapy for hyperlipidemia has minimal side effects and economic effective in reducing the lipid levels. [3] Terminalia pallida (TP) fruit has been in use for treatment of diabetes by tribal people. [4],[5] Decoction of this fruit given as a drink cures diarrhea. TP fruit's ethanolic extract (TPEt) possess significant anti-ulcer and antihyperglycemic activities. [6],[7]

   Materials and Methods Top

Collection of plant material

TP fruits were collected from Tirumala hills, Andhra Pradesh, India, and identified (Voucher No. 158) by taxonomist of the Department of Botany, S.V. University, Tirupati. They were shade dried and powdered.

Preparation of terminalia pallida ethanolic extract

TP fruit powder was extracted with 7 volumes of 95% ethanol in Soxhlet apparatus at 60-70°C for 6 h. The filtrate was distilled and concentrated under reduced pressure at low temperature (40°C) in Buchi rotavapour R-200. A dark brown, semi-solid residue was obtained. It was stored at 4°C and used for further studies.

Induction of hyperlipidemia

Sprague-Dawley male rats with an average body weight of 160-180 g were made hyperlipidemic by giving high-fat diet (HFD) obtained from National Institute of Nutrition, Hyderabad, for 15 days. The HFD contained Cholesterol (2%), Cholic acid (1%), Dalda (20%), and Coconut oil (6%) as major constituents. Hyperlipidemia was confirmed by measuring the levels of serum lipids and lipoproteins in the rats.

Experimental design

The rats were divided into 2 groups with 6 in each group.

Group 1-Hyperlipidemic rats treated with vehicle alone

Group 2-Hyperlipidemic rats treated with 100 mg TPEt/kg b.w./day for 30 days.

The vehicle or TPEt were administered to the rats using a gastric force feeding needle. Both groups of rats were fed HFD during the first 15 days of the treatment, after that HFD was replaced with normal standard diet for the second 15 days of the treatment. Body weights, serum lipids, and lipoprotein levels were measured on the 16 th day and 31 st day after the treatment.

Biochemical parameters

Serum Triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), and HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) were estimated according to the methods of Zlatkis et al., [8] Foster and Dunn, [9] and Burstein et al., [10] respectively. The serum levels of VLDL and LDL cholesterol were calculated using Friedewald formula. [11] The atherogenic index (AI) was calculated by using the following formula. [12]

Statistical analysis

All values are expressed as Mean ± S.D. The data were statistically analyzed by Student's t test .

   Results Top

After feeding HFD, there was a significant rise in the levels of serum TG, TC, LDL and VLDL cholesterol along with a decrease in HDL cholesterol in the rats [Table 1]. Treatment with TPEt for first 15 days resulted in a significant decrease in the levels of serum TG, TC, LDL and VLDL cholesterol of group 2 rats despite feeding on HFD during the period of treatment. In group 1 rats, serum TG, TC, LDL and VLDL cholesterol levels were further increased during this period. After withdrawal of HFD, continuation of the treatment of group 2 animals with TPEt for the next 15 days has resulted in a further significant decrease in the levels of serum TG, TC, LDL and VLDL cholesterol to normal levels whereas in group 1 animals serum lipids and lipoprotein levels remained higher than those in the controls [Table 2].
Table 1: Plasma lipid profile in normal and high-fat diet-fed rats

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Table 2: Effect of TPEt treatment on plasma lipid profile in normal and HFD induced hyperlipidemic rats (Mean ± S.D)

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TPEt-treated animals showed decrease in AI and increased percentage of protection against atherogenicity caused by HFD [Table 3]. There was a significant increase in body weights of rats upon HFD feeding for 15 days. TPEt supplemented group had significantly lower body weight gain than control group after 15 and 30 days of the treatment [Table 4].
Table 3: Atherogenic index and percentage of protection against atherogenicity upon treatment with TPEt in HFD induced hyperlipidemic rats

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Table 4: Effect of TPEt treatment on body weights (g) of control and treated rats

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   Discussion Top

HFD-fed hyperlipidemic rat model has earlier been reported as an ideal in vivo model for testing antihyperlipidemic drugs. [13],[14] Havel and Rapaport [15] reported that enriched fatty diets cause elevation of plasma TC and LDL cholesterol. High levels of TC and most importantly LDL cholesterol are predictors of atherosclerosis. [16] Bainton et al. showed that triglycerides are directly or indirectly related to coronary heart diseases. [17] In the present study, treatment with TPEt markedly decreased serum TG, TC, and LDL cholesterol, which indicates its use in treating coronary heart diseases.

In the present study, TPEt treatment increased the levels of HDL cholesterol. Higher HDL levels are documented to be physiologically beneficial. [18] Persons with low HDL cholesterol are necessarily at risk for premature CHD as reported by Rader et al.[19] and Ascherio and Willet. [20] A 1% decrease in HDL-C is associated with a 3%-4% increase in the risk of heart disease. It could not be explained how TPEt-treated group showed a significantly reduced body weight gain compared with the control group. AI, defined as the ratio of TC - HDL-C/HDL-C, is believed to be an important risk factor for atherosclerosis.[21] TPEt significantly decreased the ratio in HFD-fed rats indicating its antiatherogenic property.

From the above study, it is clear that TPEt can be utilized for providing dietary management in the prevention of atherosclerosis in hyperlipidemic patients.

   Acknowledgments Top

The corresponding author would like to acknowledge Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR), New Delhi, for providing research grant to carry out the study.

   References Top

1.Saravanan R, Prasad RN, Pugalandi KV. Effect of Piper beetle leaf extract on alcoholic toxicity in the rat brain. J Med Food 2003;6:261-5.  Back to cited text no. 1
2.Speight TM. Avery's Drug Treatment: Principles and Practice of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics. 2 nd ed. Auckland, New Zealand: ADIS Press; 1987.  Back to cited text no. 2
3.Berliner JA, Suzuki Y. The role of oxidized lipoproteins in atherogenesis. Free Radic Biol Med 1996;20:707-27.  Back to cited text no. 3
4.Nagaraju N, Rao KN. Folk medicine for diabetes from Rayalaseema of Andhra Pradesh. Ancient Sci Life 1989;9:31-5.  Back to cited text no. 4
5.Nagaraju N. Ph.D Thesis. Biochemical studies on some medicinal plants of Rayalaseema region. submitted to S.V. University, Tirupathi, India: 1992.  Back to cited text no. 5
6.Gupta M, Mazumder UK, Manikandan L, Bhattacharya S, Kumar SGP, Suresh R. Antiulcer activity of ethanol extract of Terminalia pallida Brandis in Swiss albino rats. J Ethnopharmacol 2005;97:405-8.  Back to cited text no. 6
7.Rao KB, Sudarsan RP, Rajasekhar MD, Nagaraju N, Appa Rao Ch. Antidiabetic activity of Terminalia pallida fruit in alloxan induced diabetic rats. J Ethnopharmacol 2003;85:169-72.  Back to cited text no. 7
8.Zlatikis A, Zak B, Boyle AJ. A new method for the direct determination of serum cholesterol. J Lab Clin Med 1953;4:486-92.  Back to cited text no. 8
9.Foster LB, Dunn RT. Standard reagents for determination of serum triglycerides by colorimetric Hantz condensation method. J Lab Clin Med 1973;19:338-40.  Back to cited text no. 9
10.Burstein M, Scholnichk HR, Morin R. Rapid method for the isolation of lipoproteins from human serum by precipitation with polyanions. J Lipid Res 1970;11:583-95.  Back to cited text no. 10
11.Friedwald WT, Levy RI, Fredrickson DS. Estimation of the concentration of LDL cholesterol in plasma without the use of the preparative ultracentrifuge. Clin Chem 1972;18:499-502.  Back to cited text no. 11
12.Suanarunsawat T, Ayutthaya WDN, Songsak T, Rattanamahaphoom J. Anti-lipidemic actions of essential oil extracted from Ocimum sanctum L. leaves in rats fed with high cholesterol diet. J Appl Biomed 2009;7:45-53.  Back to cited text no. 12
13.Rasekh HR, Khoshnood-Mansourkhani MJ, Kamalinejad M. Hypolipidemic effects of Teucrium polium in rats. Fitoterapia 2001;72:937-9.  Back to cited text no. 13
14.Pande VV, Dubey S. Antihyperlipidemic activity of Sphaeranthus indicus on atherogenic diet induced hyperlipidemia in rats. Int J Green Pharm 2009;3:159-61.  Back to cited text no. 14
  Medknow Journal  
15.Havel RJ, Rapaport E. Management of primary hyperlipidemia. N Engl J Med 1995;332:1491-8.  Back to cited text no. 15
16.Temme EH, Van HP, Schouten EG, Kesteloot H. Effects of a plant sterol-enriched spread on serum lipids and lipoproteins in mildly hypercholesterolaemic subjects. Acta Cardiol 2002;57:111-5.  Back to cited text no. 16
17.Bainton D, Miller NE, Botton CH, Yarnell JW, Suretman PM, Baker IA, et al. Plasma triglyceride and high density lipoprotein cholesterol as predictors of ischemic heart disease in British men. Br Heart J 1992;68:60-6.  Back to cited text no. 17
18.Wilson PW, Abbott RD, Castelli WP. High density lipoprotein cholesterol and mortality: The Framingham Heart Study. Atherosclerosis 1988;8:737-41.  Back to cited text no. 18
19.Rader DJ, Ikewaki K, Duverger N, Fenerstein I, Zech L, Connor W, et al. Very low density lipoproteins without coronary atherosclerosis. Lancet 1993;342:1455-8.  Back to cited text no. 19
20.Ascherio A, Willet WC. New directions in dietary studies of coronary heart disease. J Nutr 1995;125:6475-555.  Back to cited text no. 20
21.Yang R, Le G, Li A, Zheng J, Shi Y. Effect of antioxidant capacity on blood lipid metabolism and lipoprotein lipase activity of rats fed a high-fat diet. Nutrition 2006;22:1185-91.  Back to cited text no. 21


  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4]

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