Journal of Pharmacy And Bioallied Sciences
Journal of Pharmacy And Bioallied Sciences Login  | Users Online: 4282  Print this pageEmail this pageSmall font sizeDefault font sizeIncrease font size 
    Home | About us | Editorial board | Search | Ahead of print | Current Issue | Past Issues | Instructions | Online submission

 Table of Contents  
Year : 2011  |  Volume : 3  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 504-512  

Alternative therapies useful in the management of diabetes: A systematic review

Department of Pharmacy, Institute of Technology and Management, Gorakhpur, Uttar Pradesh, India

Date of Submission18-Feb-2011
Date of Decision26-Apr-2011
Date of Acceptance14-Sep-2011
Date of Web Publication23-Nov-2011

Correspondence Address:
Poonam Tripathi
Department of Pharmacy, Institute of Technology and Management, Gorakhpur, Uttar Pradesh
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/0975-7406.90103

Rights and Permissions

Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder in the endocrine system. This dreadful disease is found in all parts of the world and becoming a serious threat of mankind health. There are lots of chemical agents available to control and to treat diabetic patients, but total recovery from diabetes has not been reported up to this date. In addition to adverse effects, drug treatments are not always satisfactory in maintaining euglycemia and avoiding late stage diabetic complications. Alternative to these synthetic agents, plants provided a potential source of hypoglycemic drugs and are widely used in several traditional systems of medicine to prevent diabetes. Several medicinal plants have been investigated for their beneficial effect in different type of diabetes. Other alternative therapies such as dietary supplements, acupuncture, hydrotherapy, and yoga therapies less likely to have the side effects of conventional approaches for diabetes.

Keywords: Alternative therapy, diabetes, hydrotherapy, hypoglycemic, yoga

How to cite this article:
Pandey A, Tripathi P, Pandey R, Srivatava R, Goswami S. Alternative therapies useful in the management of diabetes: A systematic review. J Pharm Bioall Sci 2011;3:504-12

How to cite this URL:
Pandey A, Tripathi P, Pandey R, Srivatava R, Goswami S. Alternative therapies useful in the management of diabetes: A systematic review. J Pharm Bioall Sci [serial online] 2011 [cited 2022 Dec 7];3:504-12. Available from:

Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder characterized by hyperglycemia, abnormal lipid, and protein metabolism along with specific long-term complication affecting the retina, kidney, and nervous system. [1] Diabetes mellitus has a significant impact on the health, quality of life and life expectancy of patients as well as on the health care system.

Diabetes mellitus has been recognized as a growing worldwide epidemic by many health's advocacy group including WHO. [2] The WHO has estimated that diabetes will be one of the world leading cause of death and disability with next quarter century. The statistics are alarming; 30 million people were diagnosed with diabetes worldwide in 1985, by 1995 the number had risen to 135 million, and at the current rate there will be some 300 million by the year 2025 as predicted by the WHO. [3] Currently, there are more than 17 million type 2 diabetic patients in the United States (or ~5.9% of the population), 11 million in Europe, and 6 million in Japan; which represents a potential primary therapeutic market of over $6 billion. In the United States in 1997, the American Diabetes Association (ADA) reports that the total economic cost of diabetes was estimated to be $98 billion which includes $44 billion in direct medical and treatment costs, and $54 billion in indirect costs related to disability and mortality. The prevalence of all forms of diabetes is estimated to be 2%-3% of the world's population, with the number of diabetics increasing by 4%-5% per annum.

   Pathophysiology and Complication Top

Diabetes is known to have a strong genetic component with contributing environmental determinants. Although the disease is heterogynous, there appear to be a fairly consistent phenotype once the disease is fully manifested. Whatever the pathogenic cause the early stage of diabetes is characterized by resistance insulin, targeting tissue mainly in liver, skeletal muscle, and adipocytes. Insulin resistance in the tissue is associated with excessive glucose production by the liver and impaired glucose utilization by peripheral tissue, especially muscle. [4],[5],[6]

Most of the food we eat is broken down into simply sugar called glucose. The glucose is the main source of fuel to get energy for the body. After digestion, the glucose reaches our blood stream, where it is available for body cells to utilize for energy, but insulin is needed for glucose to get into cells. Insulin is a hormone secreted by the pancreas to transport glucose from blood into different cells of the body. If the pancreas does not produce enough insulin or the produced insulin does not work properly, the glucose cannot enter the body cells. So glucose stay in blood cells which makes the blood sugar level high. [7],[8]

Thus the body losses the main source of fuel for the energy even though the blood contain high amount of glucose. Since glucose is not metabolized, high amount of glucose circulate in blood, kidney remove extra sugar from blood and excrete it in the urine. [9] Since body does not utilize glucose, the body is under constant impression of hunger that's why in diabetes appetite increases and patient eat more frequently.

With increased insulin secretion to compensate for insulin resistance, base line blood glucose level can be maintained with in the normal range, but the patient may demonstrate impaired response to prandial carbohydrate loading and to oral glucose tolerance test. The chronic over stimulation of insulin secretion gradually diminishes and eventually exhausts the islets beta cells reserve. [10]

The quality of life of diabetic patient with chronic and severe hyperglycemia is adversely affected. Characteristic symptoms of tiredness and lethargy can become severe and lead to a decrease in work performance in adults and an increase of falls in the elderly. [11]

The most common acute complications are metabolic problems (hyperosmolar hyperglycemic non ketonic syndrome or HHNS) and infections. The long-term complications are macrovascular complication, microvascular complications, and diabetic foot. [11]

   Conventional Therapy Top

The general consensus on treatment of type 2 diabetes is that life style management at the forefront of therapy options. In addition to exercise, weight control and medical nutrition therapy, oral glucose lowering drugs, and injections of insulin are the conventional therapies.

Pharmacological treatment is indicated when fasting glucose level exceeds 140 mg/dl the postprandial glucose level exceeds 160 mg/dl or HbAlc exceeds 8 %. [12]

   Pharmacological Treatment and Limitations Top

Oral glucose lowering drugs: Five classes of oral agents are approved for the treatment of diabetes. Oral therapy is indicated in any patients in whom diet and exercise fail to achieve acceptable glycemic control. Although initial response may be good, oral hypoglycemic drugs may lose their effectiveness in a significant percentage of patients. The drug category includes sulfonylurea, biguanide, alpha-glucosidase inhibitor, thiazolidinedione, and meglitinide. These drugs have various side effects such as sulfonylurea causes weight gain due to hyperinsulenemia [13],[14] biguanide cause weakness, fatigue, lactic acidosis, alpha glucosidase inhibitor may cause diarrhea while thiazolidinediones may increase LDL-cholesterol level.

Insulin is usually added to an oral agent when glycemic control is suboptimal at maximal dose of oral medication. Weight gain and hypoglycemia are common side effect of insulin. [15],[16],[17] Vigorous insulin treatment may also carry an increase in atherogenesis. [16]

   Need and Scope of Alternative Medicine Top

Regardless of the type of diabetes, patients are required to control their blood glucose with medication and/or by adhering to an exercise program and a dietary plan. Due to modernization of lifestyle type 2 diabetes mellitus is becoming a major health problem in developing countries. Patient with type 2 diabetes mellitus are usually placed on a restricted diet and are instructed to exercise the purpose of which primarily is weight control. If diet and exercise fail to control blood glucose at a desired level, pharmacological treatment is prescribed. [18] These treatments have their own drawbacks ranging from development of resistance and adverse effects to lack of responsiveness in a large segment of patient population. Moreover, none of the glucose lowering agents adequately control the hyperlipidemia that frequently met with the disease. [15]

The limitation of currently available oral antidiabetic agents either in terms of efficacy/safety coupled with the emergence of the disease into global epidemic have encouraged alternative therapy that can manage diabetes more efficiently and safely.

   Alternative Approach Top

Complementary and alternative therapy is treatments that are neither widely taught in medical schools nor widely practiced in hospitals. The use of CAM in the worldwide is increasing. In 1997, 42% Americans had used an alternative medical therapy. Total visit to complementary practitioners (629 million) exceed total visit to US primary care physicians (386 million). [19] In Canada, a recent survey found that 75% people with diabetes used nonprescribed supplements (herbal, vitamin, mineral, or others) and alternative medications. [20] Overall research indicates that most people who use CAM therapies do so in addition to, rather than in place of conventional medical treatment [20],[21] although some do not receive any concurrent conventional medical care. [22] CAM for diabetes have become increasingly popular the last several years. Alternative therapies with antidiabetic activity have been researched relatively, extensively, particularly in India. Ideal therapies should have a similar degree of efficacy without troublesome. Mechanism of Some complementary and alternative therapy used for lowering the blood glucose is summarized in [Table 1].
Table 1: Complementary and alternative therapy with mechanism for lowering blood glucose

Click here to view

   Physical Intervention Top


Yoga is an old, traditional, Indian psychological, physical and spiritual exercise regimen that has been studied for several decades for its role in the management of several chronic disease including hypertension, asthma, obesity, and psychiatric illness. [23],[24],[25]

Additionally yoga has been studied for controlling both the symptom and complication associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus. [26],[27],[28],[29],[30],[31],[32],[33],[34],[35],[36],[37],[38],[39] The results from these studies suggest a statistically significant role of yoga in diabetes. Furthermore, yoga practice showed a significant improvement for those diabetic patients with pre-existing complication. [40] Yoga practices have a role even in prevention of diabetes. Yoga helps to regulate the body function and psychic processes, improve well-being and increase lovingly. There are several hypotheses for the biological mechanism that link the benefits of yoga to diabetes management. [30]

One hypothesis points to role of stress and relaxations [41],[42],[43] while others suggest that the noninvasive nature of yoga provides excellent support and few side effects to patient already taking medication for diabetes.

Massage therapy

Massage therapy could be incorporated into relaxation therapy, but it also serves another purpose that can be particularly useful for diabetes suffers. Massage has been recommended for diabetes for nearly 100 years. [44] Three published results [45],[46],[47] of two trials and one unpublished preliminary study have examined the positive effect of massage on normalizing blood glucose. One trial [48] also assess the improvement in 56% cases of diabetic neuropathy of the lower extremities by syncardial massage.

Several studies have documented the relaxing effect of massage. Massage has been demonstrated to reduce muscle tension in both subjective self-reports [49] an objective electromyographic testing.

Relaxation from massage has been demonstrated to be greater than that brought about from rest alone. [47] Massage can reduce heart rate and blood pressure, two features of the relaxation response. [50]

Additionally, patient massage has been shown to decrease anxiety in a variety of patient population including people with diabetes. [45],[46],[47]

The extreme stress-reducing benefits of massage have raised the possibility that massage may be of benefits of to people with diabetes by including the relaxation response, thereby controlling the counter-regulatory stress hormones and permitting the body to use insulin more effectively. By skill fully the body's, massage can stimulate better blood movement around the body. Improve circulation can do wonders for diabetic neuropathy and other diabetic-related complications. Even then it is suggested that it is necessary to consult closely with health care team before using massage therapy as a diabetic even for relaxation purpose.


Acupuncture therapy is a common approach to treating diabetes in China. Acupuncture is best known in the United States as an alternative therapy for chronic pain. However, it has been used for the treatment of diabetes and related complication during the past several decades. Acupuncture may be effective in treating not only diabetes, but also in preventing and managing complication of the disease. [51] A report in the 1994 Journal of traditional Chinese medicine serve as a model of effect of acupuncture on diabetic patients. [52]

The effect of acupuncture on diabetes have been observed experimentally and clinically. [53],[54],[55],[56] Animal experiments have shown that acupuncture can activate glucose-6-phosphate and affect hypothalamus. [51] Acupuncture can act on the pancreas to enhance insulin synthesis, increase the number of receptors on target cells, and accelerate the utilization of glucose, resulting in lowering of blood sugar. [51] Data from other studies have shown the beneficial antiobesity effect of acupuncture. [51],[57],[58] It appears that the therapeutic effect of acupuncture on diabetes is not the result of its action on the single organ but on multiple system. Although acupuncture shown some effect in treating diabetes, its mechanism of action are still obscure.

Medicinal herbs

As per ancient literature, more than 800 plants are reported to have antidiabetic properties. [59] Ethanopharmacological surveys indicate that more than 1200 plants are used in traditional medicine for their allied hypoglycemic activity. [60] Indian Materia Medica has mentioned numerous dravyas have been reported effective in Madhumeha. [61]

The indigenous diet may not be useful in lowering the blood sugar to the same extent as insulin and other hypoglycemic agent do, but it has some other influences, which may be useful for the management of the disease and its complications. [62] In diabetes, some herbal alternatives are proven to provide symptomatic relief and assist in the prevention of the secondary complication of the disease. Some herbs have also been proven to help in regeneration of ί-cells and in overcoming resistance. In addition to maintaining normal blood sugar level, some herbs are also reported to possess antioxidant activity and cholesterol lowering action. The management of type 2 diabetes mellitus is possible with drug that can lower the blood sugar level in one hand and restore the liver glycogen level on the other hand. In modern system of medicine, there is no drug, which is reported to possess both of the properties. [63] However, the hypoglycemic effect of some herbal extracts have been confirmed in human and animal models of type 2 diabetes and conventional drugs have been derived from the active molecule of these medicinal plants. Metformin, a less toxic biguanide and potent oral glucose lowering agents, was developed from Galega officinalis and used to treat diabetes. [64],[65],[66],[67],[68]

To the date, over 400 traditional plant treatments for diabetes have been reported, [65] although only a small number of these have received scientific and medicinal evaluation to assess their efficacy. The following is a summary of several of the most studied and commonly used medicinal herbs.

Momordica charantia

Momordica charantia, also known as bitter melon, has been used extensively in folk medicine as a remedy for diabetes. The blood sugar lowering action of fresh juice or unripe fruit has been established in animal experimental models as well as human clinical trials. [69],[70],[71],[72],[73],[74]

It is composed of several compounds with confirmed antidiabetic activity. Alcohol-extracted charantin and M. charantia consist of mixed steroids was found to be more potent than the oral hypoglycemic agent tolbutamide in an animal study. [75]

Trigonella foenum graecum

Commonly known as Fenugreek, popular for its pungent aromatic properties and is often used to add flavors in homes.

It has been used as a remedy for diabetes, particularly in India. [76] The active principle is in the defatted portion of the seed, which contains the alkaloid gonelline, nicotinic acid and coumarin. Several animal experimental studies confirmed the antidiabetic potential of T. foeneum graecum. [15],[16],[17],[18],[77]

Human studies have confirmed the glucose and lipid-lowering test. [78] At least 50% of seeds is fiber and may constitute another potential mechanism of Fenugreek's beneficial effect in diabetic patients. [79]

In type 2 diabetes patients, the ingestion of 15 g of powder of Fenugreek seed soaked in water significantly reduced postprandial glucose levels during the glucose tolerance test. [79]

Gymnema sylvestre: Commonly known as Gurmar, has long been used as a treatment for diabetes. It appeared on the US market several years ago, known as a ''Sugar blocker.'' In a study of type 2 diabetes, 22 patients were given 400 mg Gymnema sylvestre extract daily along with their oral hypoglycemic drugs. All patients demonstrated improved blood sugar control. Twenty one of 22 were able to discontinue oral medication and maintain blood sugar control with the Gymnema extract alone. [80] It was postulated that Gymnema sylvestre enhance the production of endogenous insulin. [81]

Azadirachta indica: Commonly known as neem. It has been long used as a treatment for diabetes. Aqueous extract of neem leaves significantly decreases blood sugar level and prevents adrenaline as well as glucose-induced hyperglycaemia. [82] Aqueous leaf extract also reduces hyperglycaemia in streptozotocin diabetes and the effect is possibly due to presence of a flavonoid, quercetin. [83] The plant blocks the action of epinephrine on glucose metabolism, thus increasing peripheral glucose utilization. [11] It also increased glucose uptake and glycogen deposition in isolated rat hemi diaphragm. [12]

Other plants which are most effective and the most commonly used in treatment of diabetes are summarized in [Table 2]. All plants have shown varying degree of hypoglycemic and anti-hyperglycemic activity. [84]
Table 2: Herbs used for antihyperglycemic activity

Click here to view

   Dietary Supplement Top

Vitamins and minerals are micronutrients that our body requires in small quantities for specific function. They most commonly function as essential co enzyme and co factor for metabolic reaction and thus help supports basic cellular reactions. Micronutrients have been investigated as potential preventive and treatment agents for both type 1 and type 2 diabetes and for common complication of diabetes. [85],[86]


trace element trivalent chromium (Cr 3+ ) for is an essential micronutrient for human. It is required for the maintenance of normal glucose metabolism. [87] Effects of chromium on glycemic control, dislipidemia, weight loss, body composition, and bone density have all been studied. [88] Considerable experimental and epidemiological evidence now indicates that chromium level are a major determinant of insulin sensitivity, as it functions as a cofactor in all insulin regulating activities. [89] Chromium facilitate insulin binding and subsequent uptake of glucose into the cell. Supplemental chromium has been shown to decrease fasting glucose level, improve glucose tolerance, lower insulin levels, and decrease total cholesterol and triglycerides while increases HDL cholesterol in normal, elderly, and type 2 diabetic subjects. [90] Without chromium insulin action is blocked and glucose level is elevated. [86] Although low recommended daily allowance has been established for chromium over 200 mg/day appears necessary for optimal blood sugar regulation. A good supply of chromium is assured by supplemental chromium [91] because chromium appears to increase the activity of insulin receptor, it is logical to expect that adequate level of insulin must also be present. Patient using chromium supplement should be cautioned about the potential for hypoglycemia, and monitoring renal function is prudent.


trace element vanadium has not been established as an essential nutrients and human deficiency has not been documented. [88],[92] Vanadium exist in natural valence state with vanadate(+4) and vanadyl (+5) forms most common in biological system.

Several small trials [93],[94],[95],[96] have evaluated the use of oral vanadium supplements in diabetes most focus on type-2 diabetes [93] although animal study suggests that vanadium has also potential benefits in type 1 diabetes. [97] In subject with type 2 diabetes, vanadium increased insulin sensitivity as assessed by euglycemic hyperinsulinimic clamp studies in some [93],[94],[95] but not all [96] trials. Two small studies have confirmed the effectiveness of vanadyl sulphate at a dose of 100 mg/day in improving insulin sensitivity. [94],[95]


The mineral magnesium functions as an essential cofactor for more than 300 enzymes. Magnesium is one of the more common micronutrient deficiency in diabetes. [85],[86],[98],[99] Low dietary magnesium intake has been associated with increased incidence of type 2 diabetes in some [100] but not in all [101] studies. Magnesium deficiency has been associated with complication of diabetes, retinopathy in particular. One study found patients with the most severe retinopathy were also lowest in magnesium. [102]


(Vitamin B3) occurs in two forms, nicotinic acid and nicotinamide. The active coenzyme forms (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide NAD and NAD phosphate) are essential for the functions of hundreds of enzymes and normal carbohydrate, lipid and protein metabolism. [103] The effects of nicotinamide supplementation have been studied in several trials focusing on the development [104],[105],[106],[107] and progression [108],109],[110] of type 1 diabetes a meta analysis [111] and one small trial in type 2 diabetes. [112]

Nicotinamide appears to be most effective in newly diagnosed diabetes and in subjects with positive islets cell antibodies but not diabetes. People who develops type 1 diabetes after puberty appear to be more responsive to nicotinamide treatment. [108],[109],[110],[111]

Study results have offered more support for the idea that nicotinamide help to preserve β-cell function [109] than for its possible role in diabetes prevention. [113]

Vitamin E

essential fat soluble vitamin functions primarily as an antioxidant. [114] low levels of vitamin E are associated with increased incidence of diabetes [115] and some research suggest that people with diabetes have decreased levels of antioxidants. [116]

People with diabetes may also have greater antioxidant requirement because of increased free radical production with hyperglycemia. [117],[118]

Increased levels of oxidative stress markers have been documented in people with diabetes. [119],[120] Improvement in glycemic control decrease markers of oxidative stress as does vitamin supplementation. [117],[118],[119],[120],[121],[122]

Clinical trials involving people with diabetes have investigated the effect of vitamin E on diabetes prevention [123] insulin sensitivity [124],[125] glycemic control, [126],[127],[128] protein glycation, [129] microvascular complication of diabetes, [130],[131] and cardiovascular disease and its risk factor. [121],[122],[132],[133]

   Miscellaneous approach Top


has a long history of use; [134] clinical aromatherapy is the therapeutic use of essential oils, the efficacy of which is supported by research data. In aroma therapy, essential oils are inhaled or diluted and applied topically to the skin depending on the symptom. Essential oils are usually available in specialist and health shops and it is claimed that different oil impact on the mind and body in different ways. Oil may stimulate relax, sedate, sanitize and much more. All oils have a fragrance and a chemistry that can lead to a range of responses that affect the therapeutic effect. [135] Essential oils can be used to reduce the side effects of some complication (ulcer: loss of skin integrity) and to reduce that often take longer to resolve than in non diabetic patients. [136] Essential oil can also ameliorate the stress of the coping with a lifelong chronic condition such as diabetes. [137] To use aromatherapy for stress put 3-5 drops of an undiluted essential oil on a handkerchief or cotton ball and ask the patients to hold the handkerchief to his/her nose and breathe slowly for 5 min. This treatment can be repeated every four hour or more frequently when necessary. Some essential oil when mixed in correct measures may help some diabetics particularly when used in conjunction with massage therapy. These include Eucalyptus, Juniper and Geranium oil.

However, before any aromatherapy is used to help diabetic person, it is vital to consult with diabetic health care team.


of type 2 diabetes requires continuous monitoring and multiple interventions to prevent long term complication. [138]

One of the contributing factors in the etiology of glucose intolerance and poor glycemic control in individuals with diabetes is stress response. [139],[140]

Stress management is a generic term that may encompass biofeed back, relaxation, cognitive behavioral therapy, and imagery. Biofeed back is a therapeutic technique involving an instrument that provides information about psychological activity such as skin temperature or muscle tension, with the objective of learning control over maladaptive response to stress.

Evaluation of stress management in diabetic patients showed the small but significant decrease in glycohemoglobin after 1 year. [141] In a controlled study of bio-feedback-assisted relaxation therapy in type 1 diabetes. [141],[142],[143] decrease in blood glucose were found in the treated group compared with a wait list control groups. The moderating effects of mood on glycemic control highlight the complex relationship between depression and diabetes. [141],[142],[143],[144]

Use of biofeed back and relaxation for three months in diabetic patients were associated with significant decrease in average blood glucose in comparison to control. [145] The prevalence of mood and anxiety disorders is higher in individuals with type 2 diabetes in caparison to general population. [146] So further research is necessary to determine the long term effect of bio feedback on patient's response to treatment.


is the treatment of illness and injury through the use of water both hot and cold. Hydrotherapy helps the body to get rid of toxins and relax muscle. It also relaxes body both mentally and physically.

Since hot-tub therapy can increase both flow to skeletal muscle, it has been recommended for the patients with type 2 diabetes who are unable to exercise. [147] A study reported that eight patients were asked to sit in a hot tub at an athletic facility with water up to their shoulders for 30 min for three weeks. During the study the patients weight, mean plasma glucose level and their mean Glycosylated hemoglobin decreased. [15] Caution should be taken that the water not to be too hot as neuropathy may prevent the patient from noticifying they are burning themselves. Hot-tub therapy should be further evaluated as a therapy for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The benefit could result from increased blood flow to skeletal muscle. [148]

Proper water sanitation and appropriate guidance should be considered when prescribing hot-tub therapy for diabetic patients. [149]


involves therapeutic use of colors. According to this system, the cause of any disease can be treated by the lack of color harmony in the human system and this imbalance can be removed by the use of colored light to the body.

Color therapy uses sensitive to color to identify and correct any imbalance in body's internal energy pattern that might lead to physical ill health. Therapist believe that each organ and body system has its own characteristic vibrational energy and disorder can be healed by applying color of corresponding vibrational energy, either to whole body or to organs.

According to chromotherapy, diabetes is generally caused by a deficiency of orange and yellow colors in the body. There are two methods of treating disease by color, by application of light filtered through different colored glasses and by the external or internal use of color charged water.

Lemon yellow is the color the pancreas. It is a laxative and diuretic. It is a stimulant of brain, the liver and spleen. Green and orange are also helpful in controlling diabetes. [150]

   Conclusion Top

Alternative therapies with antihyperglycemic effects are increasingly sought by patient with diabetes. This comes as no surprise sinic alternative treatments have been most widely used in chronic disease, which may be only partially alleviated by conventional treatment. Herbal medications are the most commonly used alternative therapy for blood sugar control. Scientific validation of several Indian plant species has provided the efficacy of the botanicals in reducing the sugar level. However, their safely and efficacy need to be further evaluated by well designed, controlled clinically because various non-standardized forms of the herbs have of been the testing material, the result have been difficult to replicates; therefore, preparations of standardized medicinal herbs is urgently needed in future studies and therapies several dietary supplements have been found to benefit people with diabetes, either because of potential or because of the beneficial effect on glucose metabolism. among the most important dietary supplements are chromium magnesium, vanadium, nicotinamide, and vitamin E. Other potential alternative treatments for diabetes include acupuncture, hydrotherapy, massage therapy, yoga and Chromotherapy, etc.[156]

   References Top

1.Qureshi SA, Asad W, Sultan V. The effect of Phyllantus emblica Linn. On type II diabetes, triglycerides and liver specific enzyme. Pak J Nutr 2009;8:125-8.  Back to cited text no. 1
2."Diabetes Mellitus", World Health Organization Fact Sheet 1999, No. 138.  Back to cited text no. 2
3."Diabetes Mellitus", American Diabetes Association - General Fact Sheet, 1999.  Back to cited text no. 3
4.Chattopadhyay RR, Chattopadhyay RN, Nandy AK, Poddar G, Maitra SK. Preliminary report on antihyperglycemic effect of a fraction of fresh leaves of Azadirachta indica (Beng.Neem). Bull Calcutta Sch Trop Med 1987;35:29-33.  Back to cited text no. 4
5.Khosla P, Bhanwra S, Singh J, Seth S, Srivastava RK. A study of hypoglycemic effects of Azadirachta indica (Neem) in normal and alloxan diabetic rabbits. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol 2000;44:69-74.  Back to cited text no. 5
6.Pillai NR, Santhakumari G. Hypoglycemic Activty of melia Azadirechta Linn (neem). Indian J Med Res 1981;74:931-3.  Back to cited text no. 6
7.Edwin E, Sheeja E, Gupta VB, Jain DC. Fight Diabetes the herbal way. Express Pharma Pulse 2006;1:41-2.  Back to cited text no. 7
8.Andrew JK. Diabetes. New York: Churchill living stone; 2000.  Back to cited text no. 8
9.Alam K, Mahpara S. Role of diet, nutrients, spices and natural products in diabetes mellitus. Pak J Nutr 2003;2:1-12.  Back to cited text no. 9
10.Clark CM Jr. The burden of chronic hyperglycemia. Diabetes Care 1998;21 Suppl 3:C32-4.  Back to cited text no. 10
11.Chattopadhyay RR. Possible mechanism of antihyperglycemic effect of Azadirachta indica leaf extract. Part IV. Gen Pharmacol 1996;27:431-4.  Back to cited text no. 11
12.Chattopadhyay RR, Chattopadhyay RN, Nandy AK, Poddar G, Maitra SK. The effect of fresh leaves of Azadirachta indica on glucose uptake and glycogen content in the isolated rat hemi diaphragm. Bull Calcutta Sch Trop Med 1987;35:8-12.  Back to cited text no. 12
13.Dorababu M, Prabha T, Priyambada S, Agrawal VK, Aryya NC, Goel RK. Effect of Bacopa monniera and Azadirachta indica on gastric ulceration and healing in experimental NIDDM rats. Indian J Exp Biol 2004;2:389-97.   Back to cited text no. 13
14.Halim EM. Lowering of blood sugar by water extract of Azadirachta indica and Abroma augusta in diabetes rats. Indian J Exp Biol 2003;41:636-40.  Back to cited text no. 14
15.Zia T, Hasnain SN, Hasan SK. Evaluation of the oral hypoglycemic effect of Trigonella foenum-graecum in normal mice. J Ethanopharmacol 2001;75:191-5.  Back to cited text no. 15
16.Ribes G, Sauvaire Y, Da Costa C, Baccou JC, Loubatieres- Mariani MM. Antidiabetic effects of subfractions from fenugreek seeds in diabetic dogs. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 1986;182:159-66.  Back to cited text no. 16
17.Abdel-Barry JA, Abdel-Hassan IA, Al-Hakiem MH. Hypoglycemic and antihyperglycemic effects of Trigonella foenum- graecum leaf in normal and alloxan induced diabetic rats. J Ethnopharmacol 1997;58:149-55.  Back to cited text no. 17
18.Khosla P, Gupta DD, Nagpal RK. Effect of Trigonella foenum graecum (Fenugreek) on blood glucose in normal and diabetic rats. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol 1995;39:173-4.  Back to cited text no. 18
19.Eisenberg DM, Davis RB, Ettner SL, Appel S, Wilkey S, Van Rompay M, et al. Trends in alternative medicine use in the United States, 1990-1997: Results of a follow-up national survey. JAMA 1998;280:1569-75.  Back to cited text no. 19
20.Ryan EA, Pick ME, Marceau C. Use of alternative medicines in diabetes mellitus. Diabet Med 2001;18:242-5.  Back to cited text no. 20
21.Astin JA. Why patients use alternative medicine: Results of a national survey. JAMA 1998;279:1548-53.  Back to cited text no. 21
22.Eisenberg DM, Kessler RC, Foster C, Norlock FE, Calkins DR, Delbanco TL. Unconventional medicine in United States: Prevelance, cost and pattern use. N Engl J Med 1993;328:246-52.  Back to cited text no. 22
23.Ramaratnam S, Sridharan K. Yoga for epilepsy. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2002, Issue 1. Art.No.: CD001524 DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD001524  Back to cited text no. 23
24.Sabina AB, Williams A, Wall HK, Bansal S, Chupp G, Kartz DL. Yoga intervention for adults with mild to moderate asthma: A pilot study. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 2005;94:543-8.  Back to cited text no. 24
25.Gupta N, Khera S, Vempati RP, Sharma R, Bijlani RL. Effect of yoga based lifestyle intervention on state and trial anxiety. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol 2006;50:41-7.  Back to cited text no. 25
26.Malhotra V, Singh S, Tandon OP, Madhu SV, Prasad A, Sharma SB. Effect of yoga asanas on nerve conduction in type 2 diabetes. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol 2002;46:298-306.  Back to cited text no. 26
27.Malhotra V, Singh S, Tandon OP, Sharma SB. The beneficial effect of yoga in diabetes. Nepal Med Coll J 2005;7:145-7.  Back to cited text no. 27
28.Sahay BK, Sahay RK. Lifestyle modification in management of diabetes mellitus. J Indian Med Assoc 2002;100:178-80.  Back to cited text no. 28
29.Manyam BY. Diabetes mellitus, Ayurveda, and yoga. Comment. J Altern Complement Med 2004;10:223-5.  Back to cited text no. 29
30.Sahay BK. Role of yoga in diabetes. J Assoc Physicians India 2007;55:121-6.  Back to cited text no. 30
31.Dham S, Shah V, Hirsch S, Banerji MA. The role of complementary and alternative medicine in diabetes. Curr Diab Rep 2006;6:251-8.  Back to cited text no. 31
32.Gupta SM. Modern medicine and yoga. J Intern Med India 2001;4:155-6.  Back to cited text no. 32
33.Kaplan-Mayer G. Get moving with yoga. Diabetes Self Manag 2003;20:28,31-3.  Back to cited text no. 33
34.Khalsa SB. Yoga as a therapeutic intervention: A bibliometric analysis of published research studies. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol 2004;48:269-85.  Back to cited text no. 34
35.Nagarathna R, Nagendra HR. Integrated approach of yoga therapy in the management of diabetes mellitus. Proceedings of the Ninth Annual Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Conference. New York, NY, USA: IEEE 1987. p. 1593-4.  Back to cited text no. 35
36.Nayak NN, Shankar K. Yoga: A therapeutic approach. Phys Med Rehabil Clin N Am 2004;15:783-98.  Back to cited text no. 36
37.Shembekar AG, Kate SK. Yoga exercises in the management of diabetes mellitus. J Diabetic Assoc India 1980;20:167-71.  Back to cited text no. 37
38.Singh S, Malhotra V, Singh KP, Madhu SV, Tandon OP. Role of yoga in modifying certain cardiovascular functions in type 2 diabetic patients. J Assoc Physicians India 2004;52:203-6.  Back to cited text no. 38
39.Stevens DL. The use of complementary and alternative therapies in diabetes. Clin Fam Prac 2002;4:911-28.  Back to cited text no. 39
40.Innes KE, Bourguignon C, Taylor AG. Risk indices associated with the insulin resistance syndrome, cardiovascular disease, and possible protection with yoga: A systematic review. J Am Board Fam Pract 2005;18:491-519.  Back to cited text no. 40
41.Surwit RS, Schneider MS. Role of stress in the etiology and treatment of diabetes mellitus. Psychosom Med 1993;55:380-93.  Back to cited text no. 41
42.Jablon SL, Naliboff BD, Gilmore SL, Rosenthal MJ. Effects of relaxation training on glucose tolerance and diabetic control in type II diabetes. Appl Psychophysiol Biofeedback 1997;22:155-69.  Back to cited text no. 42
43.Da Silva GD, Lorenzi-Filho G, Lage LV. Effects of yoga and the addition of Tui Na in patients with fibromyalgia. J Altern Complement Med 2007;13:1107-13.  Back to cited text no. 43
44.Elson DF, Meredith M. Therapy for type II diabetes mellitus. Wis Med J 1998;97:49-54.  Back to cited text no. 44
45.Field T. Massage therapy for infants and children. J Dev Behav Pediatr 1995;16:105-11.  Back to cited text no. 45
46.Field T, Hernandez RM, LaGreca A, Shaw K, Schlanberg S, Kuhn C. Massage therapy lowers blood glucose levels in children with diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Spectrum 1997;10:237-9.  Back to cited text no. 46
47.Vest G. Acupressure, breath awareness help diabetes patients. Massage Magzine 2000;86:64.  Back to cited text no. 47
48.Valtonen EJ, Lilius HG. Syncardial massage in diabetic and other neuropathies lower extremities. Dis Nerv Syst 1973;34:192-4.  Back to cited text no. 48
49.Matheson DW, Edelson R, Hiatrides D, Newkirk J, Twinem K, Thruston S. Relaxation measured by EMG as a function of vibroactile stimulation. Biofeedback Self Regul 1976;1:285-92.  Back to cited text no. 49
50.Yates J. A physician's guide to therapeutic massage: Its physiological effects and their application to treatment. Vancover, British Columbia, Massage Therapists' Association of British Columbia, 1990.  Back to cited text no. 50
51.Hu H. A review of treatment of diabetes by acupuncture during the past forty years. J Tradit Chin Med 1995;15:145-54.  Back to cited text no. 51
52.Chen D, Gong D, Zhai Y. Clinical and experimental studies in treating diabetes mellitus with acupuncture. J Tradit Chin Med 1994;14:163-6.  Back to cited text no. 52
53.Chen JF, Wei J. Changes of plasma insulin level in diabetics treated with acupuncture. J Tradit Chin Med 1985;5:79-84.  Back to cited text no. 53
54.Huang KC. Diabetes mellitus. In: Huang KC, editor. Acupuncture: The Past and the Present, 1 st ed. New York: Vantage Press; 1996. p. 202.  Back to cited text no. 54
55.Chen JF. A hemorrheological study on the effect of acupuncture in treating diabetes mellitus. J Tradit Chin Med 1987;7:95-100.  Back to cited text no. 55
56.Han DW, Xu RL. Progress in the research of blood activation and hemostasis removal. Abstr Chin Med 1988;2:466-83.  Back to cited text no. 56
57.Hou AL. Blood sugar response of diabetes to acupuncture of sanyinjiao. Int J Clin Acupunct 1993;4:361-4.  Back to cited text no. 57
58.Liu ZC, Sun FM. Acupuncture treatment of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus: A clinical study. Int J Clin Acupunct 1994;5:249-59.  Back to cited text no. 58
59.Eddouks M, Maghrani M. Phlorizin-like effect of Fraxinus excelsior in normal and diabetic rats. J Ethnopharmacol 2004;9:149-54.  Back to cited text no. 59
60.Kesari AN, Kesari S, Santosh KS, Rajesh KG, Geeta W. Studies on the glycemic and lipidemic effect of Murraya koenigii in experimental animals. J Ethnopharmacol 2007;112:305-11.  Back to cited text no. 60
61.Sabu MC, Subburaju T. Effect of Cassia auriculata Linn. on serum glucose level, glucose utilization by isolated rat hemidiaphragm. J Ethnopharmacol 2002;80:203-6.  Back to cited text no. 61
62.Subbulakshmi G, Naik M. Indigenous foods in the treatment of diabetes mellitus. Bombay Hosp J 2001;43:548-61.  Back to cited text no. 62
63.Shrabana C, Tuhin KB, Begum R, Liaquat A, Mosihuzzaman M, Nilufer N, et al. Advanced studies on the hypoglycemic effect of Caesalpinia bonducella F. in type 1 and 2 diabetes in Long Evans rats. J Ethnopharmacol 2003;84:41-6.  Back to cited text no. 63
64.Fabricant DS, Farnsworth NR. The value of plants used in traditional medicine for drug discovery. Environ Health Perspect 2001;109 Suppl 1:69-75.  Back to cited text no. 64
65.Bailey CJ, Day C. Traditional plant medicines as treatments for diabetes. Diabetes Care 1989;12:553-64.  Back to cited text no. 65
66.British Herbal Medicine Association. British Herbal Pharmacopoeia. Keighley, UK;1979.  Back to cited text no. 66
67.Petricic J, Kalogjera Z. Bestimmung des galegins und die antidiabetische wirkung droge herba galegae. Planta Med 1982;45:410.  Back to cited text no. 67
68.Sterne J. Pharmacology and mode of action of the hypoglycemic guanidine derivatives. In: Campbell GD, editor. Oral Hypoglycemic Agents. New York, NY: Academic Press; 1969. p. 193-245.  Back to cited text no. 68
69.Karunanayake EH, Jeevathayaparan S, Tennekoon KH. Effect of Momordica charantia fruit juice on Streptozotocin induced diabetes in rats. J Ethnopharmacol 1990;30:199-204.  Back to cited text no. 69
70.Khanna P, Jain SC, Panagariya A, Dixit VP. Hypoglycemic activity of polypeptide-p from a plant source. J Nat Prod 1981;44:648-55.  Back to cited text no. 70
71.Bailey CJ, Day C, Turner SL, Leatherdale BA. Cerasee, a traditional treatment for diabetes. Studies in normal and streptozotocin diabetic mice. Diabetes Res 1985;2:81-4.  Back to cited text no. 71
72.Singh N, Tyagi SD, Agarwal SC. Effects of long term feeding of acetone extract of Momordica charantia (whole fruit powder) on alloxan diabetic albino rats. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol 1989;33:97-100.  Back to cited text no. 72
73.Jayasooriya AP, Sakono M, Yukizaki C, Kawano M, Yamamoto K, Fukuda N. Effects of Momordica charantia powder on serum glucose levels and various lipid parameters in rats fed with cholesterol-free and cholesterol-enriched diets. J Ethnopharmacol 2000;72:331-6.  Back to cited text no. 73
74.Ahmad N, Hassan MR, Halder H, Bennoor KS. Effect of Momordica charantia (Karella) extracts on fasting and postprandial serum glucose levels in NIDDM patients. Bangladesh Med Res Counc Bull 1999;25:11-3.  Back to cited text no. 74
75.Sarkar S, Pranava M, Marita R. Demonstration of the hypoglycemic action of Momordica charantia in a validated animal model of diabetes. Pharmacol Res 1996;33:1-4.  Back to cited text no. 75
76.Miller LG. Herbal medications, nutraceuticals, and diabetes. In: Miller LG, Murray WJ, editors. Herbal Medicinals, A Clinician's Guide. Binghamton, NY: Pharmaceutical Products Press, Imprint of the Haworth Press, Inc.; 1998. p. 115-33.  Back to cited text no. 76
77.Ribes G, Sauvaire Y, Baccou JC, Valette G, Chenon D, Trimble ER, et al.Effects of fenugreek seeds on endocrine pancreatic secretions in dogs. Ann Nutr Metab 1984;28:37-43.  Back to cited text no. 77
78.Sharma RD, Raghuram TC, Rao NS. Effect of fenugreek seeds on blood glucose and serum lipids in type I diabetes. Eur J Clin Nutr 1990;44:301-6.  Back to cited text no. 78
79.Madar Z, Abel R, Samish S, Arad J. Glucose-lowering effect of fenugreek in noninsulin dependent diabetics. Eur J Clin Nutr 1988;42:51-4.  Back to cited text no. 79
80.Baskaran K, Kizar Ahamath B, Radha Shanmugasundaram K, Shanmugasundaram ER. Antidiabetic effect of a leaf extract from Gymnema sylvestre in non-insulindependent diabetes mellitus patients. J Ethnopharmacol 1990;30:295-300.  Back to cited text no. 80
81.Shanmugasundaram ER, Rajeswari G, Baskaran K, Rajesh Kumar BR, Radha Shanmugasundaram K, Kizar Ahmath B, et al. Use of Gymnema sylvestre leaf extract in the control of blood glucose in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. J Ethnopharmacol 1990;30:281-94.  Back to cited text no. 81
82.Murty KS, Rao DN, Rao DK, Murty LBG. A prelimnary study of hypoglycemic and antihyperglycemic activity of Azadirachata indica. Indian J Pharmacol 1978;10:247-250  Back to cited text no. 82
83.Chakraborty T, Uerotta L, Poddar G, Evaluation of Azadirachta indica leaf extract for hypoglycemic activity in rats Phytother. Res 1989;3:30-32  Back to cited text no. 83
84.Grover JK, Yadav S, Vats V. Medicinal plants of India with anti-diabetic potential. J Ethnopharmacol 2002;81:81-100.  Back to cited text no. 84
85.Franz MJ, Bantle JP. American Diabetes Association Guide to Medical Nutrition Therapy for Diabetes. Alexandria Va., American Diabetes Association;1999.  Back to cited text no. 85
86.Mooradian AD, Failla M, Hoogwerf B, Marynuik M, Wylie-Rosett J. Selected vitamins and minerals in diabetes. Diabetes Care 1994;17:464-79.  Back to cited text no. 86
87.Anderson RA. Chromium, glucose intolerance and diabetes. J Am Col Nutr 1998;17:548-55.  Back to cited text no. 87
88.Sarubin A. The Health Professional's Guide to Popular Dietary Supplements. Chicago, The American Dietetic Association; 2000.  Back to cited text no. 88
89.Offenbacher EG, Pi-Sunyer FX. Beneficial effect of chromium-rich yeast on glucose tolerance and blood lipids in elderly subjects. Diabetes 1980;29:919-25.  Back to cited text no. 89
90.Baker B. Chromium supplements tied to glucose control. Fam Pract News 1996;15:5.  Back to cited text no. 90
91.Anderson RA, Bryden NA, Polansky MM. Dietary chromium intake. Freely chosen diets, institutional diet, and individual foods. Biol Trace Elem Res 1992;32:117-21.  Back to cited text no. 91
92.Harland BF, Harden-Williams BA. Is vanadium of nutritional importance yet? J Am Diet Assoc 1994;94:891-4.  Back to cited text no. 92
93.Goldfine A, Simonson D, Folli F, Patti ME, Kahn R. Metabolic effects of sodium metavanadate in humans with insulin-dependent and noninsulin dependent diabetes mellitus in vivo and in vitro studies. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1995;80:3311-20.  Back to cited text no. 93
94.Halberstam M, Cohen N, Shlimovich P, Rossetti L, Shamoon H. Oral vanadyl sulfate improves insulin sensitivity in NIDDM but not obese nondiabetic subjects. Diabetes 1996;45:659-66.  Back to cited text no. 94
95.Cohen N, Halberstam M, Schilmovich P, Chang CJ, Shamoon H, Rosetti L. Oral vanadyl sulfate improves hepatic and peripheral insulin sensitivity in patients with non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus. J Clin Invest 1995;95:2501-9.  Back to cited text no. 95
96.Boden G, Chen X, Ruiz J, van Rossum GD, Turco S. Effects of vanadyl sulfate on carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in patients with noninsulin dependent diabetes mellitus. Metabolism 1996;45:1130-5.  Back to cited text no. 96
97.Poucheret P, Verma S, Grynpas MD, McNeil JH. Vanadium and diabetes. Mol Cell Biol 1998;188:73-80.  Back to cited text no. 97 Valk H. Magnesium in diabetes mellitus. J Med 1999;54:139-46.  Back to cited text no. 98
99.American Diabetes Association. Magnesium supplementation in the treatment of diabetes (Consensus statement). Diabetes Care 1992;15:1065-7.  Back to cited text no. 99
100.Meyer KA, Kushi LH, Jacobs DR, Slavin J, Sellers TA, Folsom AR. Carbohydrates, dietary fiber, and incident type 2 diabetes in older women. Am J Clin Nutr 2000;71:921-30.  Back to cited text no. 100
101.Kao WH, Folsom AR, Nieto FJ, Mo JP, Watson RL, Brancati FL. Serum and dietary magnesium and the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus: The atherosclerosis risk in communities (ARIC) study. Arch Intern Med 1999;159:2151-9.  Back to cited text no. 101
102.McNair P, Christiansen C, Madsbad S, Lauritzen E, Faber O, Binder C, et al. Hypomagnesemia, a risk factor in diabetic retinopathy. Diabetes 1978;27:1075-7.  Back to cited text no. 102
103.Cam MC, Brownsey RW, McNeil JH. Mechanisms of vanadium action: Insulin mimetic or insulin-enhancing agent? Can J Physiol Pharmacol 2000;78:829-47.  Back to cited text no. 103
104.Greenbaum CJ, Kahn SE, Palmer JP. Diabetes 1996;45:1631-4.  Back to cited text no. 104
105.Lampeter EF, Klinghammer A, Scherbaum WA, Heinze E, Haastert B, Giani G, et al. The deutsch nicotinamide intervention study: An attempt to prevent type 1 diabetes. DENIS Group.Diabetes 1998;47:980-4.  Back to cited text no. 105
106.Elliott RB, Pilcher CC, Fergusson DM, Stewart AW. A population-based strategy to prevent insulin-dependent diabetes using nicotinamide. J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab 1996;9:501-9.  Back to cited text no. 106
107.Gale EA. Nicotinamide: Potential for the prevention of type 1 diabetes? Horm Metab Res 1996;28:361-4.  Back to cited text no. 107
108.Pozzilli P, Vissali N, Girhlanda G, Manna R, Andreani D. Nicotinamide increases C-peptide secretion in patients with recent onset type 1 diabetes. Diabet Med 1989;6:568-72.  Back to cited text no. 108
109.Pozzilli P, Vissali N, Signore A, Baroni MG, Buzzetti R, Cavallo MG, et al. Double-blind trial of nicotinamide in recent onset IDDM (the IMDIAB III study). Diabetologia 1995;38:848-52.  Back to cited text no. 109
110.Vissali N, Cavallo MG, Signore A, Baroni MG, Buzzetti R, Fioriti E, et al. A multi-center, randomized trial of two different doses of nicotinamide in patients with recent-onset type 1 diabetes (the IMDIAB VI). Diabetes Metab Res Rev 1999;15:181-5.  Back to cited text no. 110
111.Pozzolli P, Browne PD, Kolb H. The Nicotinamide Trialists: Meta-analysis of nicotinamide treatment in patients with recent-onset IDDM. Diabetes Care 1996;19:1357-63.  Back to cited text no. 111
112.Polo V, Saibene A, Pontiroli AE. Nicotinamide improves insulin secretion and metabolic control in lean type 2 patients with secondary failure to sulphonylureas. Acta Diabetol 1998;35:61-4.  Back to cited text no. 112
113.Kolb H, Volker B. Nicotinamide in type 1 diabetes mechanism of action revisited. Diabetes Care 1999;22 (Suppl. 2):B16-20.  Back to cited text no. 113
114.Shils ME, Olson JA, Shike M, Ross AC. Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease. 9 th ed. Philadelphia Pa: Lea and Febiger; 1999.  Back to cited text no. 114
115.Salonen JT, Nyyssonen K, Tuomainen TP, Maenpaa PH, Korpela H, Kaplan GA, et al. Increased risk of noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus at low plasma vitamin E concentrations: A four-year study in men. BMJ 1995;311:1124-7.  Back to cited text no. 115
116.Polidori MC, Mecocci P, Stahl W, Parente B, Cecchetti R, Cherubini A, et al. Plasma levels of lipophilic antioxidants in very old patients with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Metab Res Rev 2000;16:15-9.  Back to cited text no. 116
117.Sharma A, Kharb S, Chugh SN, Kakkar R, Singh GP. Evaluation of oxidative stress before and after control of glycemia and after vitamin E supplementation in diabetic patients. Metabolism 2000;49:160-2.  Back to cited text no. 117
118.Ceriello A, Bortolotti N, Motz E, Crescentini A, Lizzio S, Russo A, et al. Meal-generated oxidative stress in type 2 patients. Diabetes Care 1998;21:1529-33.  Back to cited text no. 118
119.Santini SA, Marra G, Giardina B, Cottroneo P, Mordente A, Martorana GE, et al. Defective plasma antioxidant defenses and enhanced susceptibility to lipid peroxidation in uncomplicated IDDM. Diabetes 1997;46:1853-8.  Back to cited text no. 119
120.Ceriello A, Bortolotti N, Falleti E, Taboga C, Tonutti L, Crescentini A, et al. Total radical-trapping antioxidant parameter in non-insulin dependent diabetic patients. Diabetes Care 1997;20:194-7.  Back to cited text no. 120
121.Reaven PD, Herold DA, Barnett J, Edelman S. Effects of vitamin E on susceptibility of low-density lipoprotein and low-density lipoprotein subfractions to oxidation and on protein glycation in NIDDM. Diabetes Care 1995;18:807-16.   Back to cited text no. 121
122.Devaraj S, Jialal I. Low-density lipoprotein postsecretory modification, monocyte function, and circulating adhesion molecules in type 2 diabetic patients with and without macrovascular complications. Circulation 2000;102:191-6.  Back to cited text no. 122
123.Pozzolli P, Vissali N, Cavallo MG, Signore A, Baroni MG, Buzzetti R, et al. Vitamin E and nicotinamide have similar effects in maintaining residual _ cell function in recent onset insulin-dependent diabetes (The IMDIAB IV study). Eur J Endocrinol 1997;137:234-9.  Back to cited text no. 123
124.Paolisso G, D'Amore A, Giugliano D, Cereillo A, Varricchio M, D'Onofrio F. Pharmacological doses of vitamin E improve insulin action in healthy subjects and non-insulin dependent diabetic patients. Am J Clin Nutr 1993;57:650-6.  Back to cited text no. 124
125.Skrha J, Sindelka G, Kvasnicka J, Hilgertova J. Insulin action and fibrinolysis influenced by vitamin E in obese type 2 diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 1999;44:27-33.  Back to cited text no. 125
126.Gómez-Pérez FJ, Valles-Sanchez VE, López-Alvarenga JC, Choza-Romero R, Ibarra Pascuali JJ, González Orellana R, et al. Vitamin E modifies neither fructosamine nor HbA1c levels in poorly controlled diabetes. Rev Invest Clin 1996;48:421-4.  Back to cited text no. 126
127.Jain SK, McVie R, Jaramillo JJ, Palmer M, Smith T. Effect of modest vitamin E supplementation on blood glycated hemoglobin and triglyceride levels and red cell indices in type 1 diabetic patients. J Am Coll Nutr 1996;15:458-61.  Back to cited text no. 127
128.Paolisso G, D'Amore A, Galzerano D, Balbi V, Giugliano D, Varriccho M, et al. Daily vitamin E supplements improve metabolic control but not insulin secretion in elderly type 2 diabetic patients. Diabetes Care 1993;16:1433-7.  Back to cited text no. 128
129.Cerillo A, Giugliano D, Quataro A, Donzella C, Dipalo G, Lefebrve PJ. Vitamin E reduction of protein glycosylation in diabetes. New prospect for prevention of diabetic complications? Diabetes Care 1991;14:68-72.  Back to cited text no. 129
130.Tutuncu NB, Bayraktar N, Varli K. Reversal of defective nerve conduction with vitamin E supplementation in type 2 diabetes: A preliminary study. Diabetes Care 1998;21:1915-8.  Back to cited text no. 130
131.Bursell SE, Clermont AC, Aiello LP, Aiello LM, Schlossman DK, Feener EP, et al. High-dose vitamin E supplementation normalizes retinal blood flow and creatinine clearance in patients with type 1 diabetes. Diabetes Care 1999;22:1245-51.  Back to cited text no. 131
132.Yusuf S, Dagenais G, Pogue J, Bosch J, Sleight P. Vitamin E supplementation and cardiovascular events in high-risk patients. The Heart Outcomes Prevention Evaluation Study Investigators. N Engl J Med 2000;342:154-60.  Back to cited text no. 132
133.Andrew R, Skyrme-Jones P, O'Brien RC, Berry KL, Meredith IT. Vitamin E supplementation improves endothelial function in type 1 diabetes mellitus: A randomized, placebo-controlled study. J Am Coll Cardiol 2000;36:94-102.  Back to cited text no. 133
134.Lawless J. Aromatherapy and the Mind. Thorons; San Francisco, 1994.  Back to cited text no. 134
135.Betts T. The fragment breeze: The role of aromatherapy in treating epilepsy. Aromatherapy Quarterly 1996;51:25-7.  Back to cited text no. 135
136.Mowat A, Macsween R, Percy-Hobbs L, Fouils A. Liver, billiary tract and pancrease. In Muir's Textbook of Pathology. 13 th ed. MacSween R, Whaley K, editors. London, Arnold; 1993: p 674-41.  Back to cited text no. 136
137.Grey M. Coping and Diabetes. Diabetes Spectrum 13:167-169,2000  Back to cited text no. 137
138.National Institutes of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. Diabetes Statistics. Bethesda, MD: NIDDK; 1995; NIH publication no. 96-3926.  Back to cited text no. 138
139.American Diabetes Association: Diabetes 1996: Vital Statistics. Cowie CC, Eberhardt MS, Eds. Alexandria, VA, American Diabetes Association,1996  Back to cited text no. 139
140.Diabetes Research Working Group. Conquering Diabetes A Strategic Plan for the 21 st Century. NIH publication No. 99-4398; 1999. p. 1-2.  Back to cited text no. 140
141.Surwit RS, van Tilburg MA, Zucker N, McCaskill CC, Parekh P, Fienglos MN, et al. Stress management improves long-term glycemic control in type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 2002;25:30-4.  Back to cited text no. 141
142.Jablon SL, Naliboff BD, Gilmore SL, Rosenthal MJ. Effects of relaxation training in glucose tolerance and diabetic control in type II diabetes. Appl Psychophysiol Biofeedback 1997;22:155-69.  Back to cited text no. 142
143.McGrady A, Horner J. Role of mood in outcome of biofeedback assisted relaxation therapy in insulin dependent diabetes mellitus. Appl Psychophysiol Biofeedback 1999;24:79-88.  Back to cited text no. 143
144.Talbot F, Nouwen A. A review of the relationship between depression and diabetes in adults: Is there a link?. Diabetes Care 2000;23:1556-62.  Back to cited text no. 144
145.McGinnis RA, Cox SA, McGrady A, Dowling KA. Biofeedback-Assisted Relaxation in type II Diabetes. Diabetes Care 2005;28:2145-9.  Back to cited text no. 145
146.Anderson RJ, Freedland KJ, Clouse RE, Lustman PJ. The prevalence of comorbid depression in adults with diabetes: A meta-analysis. Diabetes Care 2001;24:1069-78.  Back to cited text no. 146
147.Hooper PL. Hot-tub therapy for type 2 diabetes mellitus. N Engl J Med 1999;341:924-5.  Back to cited text no. 147
148.Baron AD, Steinberg H, Brechtel G, Johnson A. Skeletal muscle blood flow independently modulates insulin mediated glucose uptake. Am J Physiol 1994;266:E248-53.  Back to cited text no. 148
149.Hooper PL. Hot-tub therapy for type 2 diabetes mellitus. Reply to discussion. N Engl J Med 2000;342:218-9.  Back to cited text no. 149
150.Bakhru HK. Conquering Diabetes Naturally. New Delhi, India: Orient Paperbacks; 2008. p. 166-8.  Back to cited text no. 150
151.Ezzo J, Donner T, Cox M. Is massage useful in the management of diabetes? A systematic review. Diabetes Spectr 2001;14:223.  Back to cited text no. 151
152.Akhtar MS, Athar MA, Yaqub M. Effect of Momordica charantia on blood glucose level of normal and alloxan diabetic rabbits. Planta Med 1981;42:205-12.  Back to cited text no. 152
153.Puri D, Prabhu KM, Murthy PS. Mechanism of action of a hypoglycemic principle isolated from fenugreek seeds. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol 2002;46:457-62.  Back to cited text no. 153
154.Kanetkar P, Singhal R, Kamat M. Gymnema sylvestre: A Memoir. J Clin Biochem Nutr 2007;41:77-81.  Back to cited text no. 154
155.Giancaterini A, De Gaetano A, Mingrone G, Gniuli D, Liverani E, Capristo E, et al. Acetyl-L- Carnitine infusion increases glucose disposal in type-2 diabetes patients. Metabolism 2000;49:704-7.  Back to cited text no. 155
156.O'Connell B. Select vitamins and minerals in the management of diabetes. Diabetes Spectr 2001;14:133-48.  Back to cited text no. 156


  [Table 1], [Table 2]

This article has been cited by
1 Anti-hyperglycemic and anti-hyperlipidemic effects of a methanolic extract of Debregeasia salicifolia in Alloxan-induced diabetic albino mice
B. Khan, A. Ullah, M.A. Khan, A. Amin, M. Iqbal, S. Khan, M. Ateeq, K. Aman, A. Aziz, M. N. K. Khattak, T. Nadeem, N. Munir, S. Khan, Q. Ali
Brazilian Journal of Biology. 2024; 84
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
2 Complementary and alternative system of medicine for type 2 diabetes mellitus and its complications: A scoping review
Shradha S Parsekar, Nachiket Gudi, Sujata Chodankar Walke, Prabhu Dutta Shaw, Aditi Hombali, Anupama V Nayak, Basavaraj S Hadapad
F1000Research. 2022; 11: 526
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
3 Phytochemical Analysis, Acute Toxicity, as well as Antihyperglycemic and Antidiabetic Activities of Corchorus olitorius L. Leaf Extracts
Rebecca Nakaziba, Aloysius Lubega, Jasper Ogwal-Okeng, Paul E. Alele, Ghadir A. El-Chaghaby
The Scientific World Journal. 2022; 2022: 1
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
4 Verification of the folkloric and anecdotal antidiabetic effects of Hypoxis hemerocallidea (Fisch., C.A. Mey. & Avé-Lall) and isolated, ß-sitosterol using early-stage type II spontaneous diabetic mutant BKS-Leprdb mice
N. M. Mkolo, O. O. Olaokun, P. H. King, I. Janse van Rensburg, J. N. Eloff, V. Naidoo
BMC Complementary Medicine and Therapies. 2022; 22(1)
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
5 Morphology Control Strategy of Bimetallic MOF Nanosheets for Upgrading the Sensitivity of Noninvasive Glucose Detection
Xiaoting Zha, Wenyao Yang, Liuwei Shi, Yi Li, Qi Zeng, Jianhua Xu, Yajie Yang
ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces. 2022;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
6 Dual Mechanism Enhanced Peroxidase-like Activity of Iron–Nickel Bimetal–Organic Framework Nanozyme and Its Application for Biosensing
Zhao Mu, Shu Wu, Jingjing Guo, Min Zhao, Yan Wang
ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering. 2022;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
7 Therapeutic efficacy of Clompanus pubescens leaves fractions via downregulation of neuronal cholinesterases/Na+-K+ATPase/IL-1 ß, and improving the neurocognitive and antioxidants status of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats
Amos Sunday Onikanni, Bashir Lawal, Babatunji Emmanuel Oyinloye, Gomaa Mostafa-Hedeab, Mohammed Alorabi, Simona Cavalu, Augustine O. Olusola, Chih-Hao Wang, Gaber El-Saber Batiha
Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy. 2022; 148: 112730
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
8 Effect of Airborne Low Intensity Multi frequency ultrasound (ALIMFUS) on glycemic control, lipid profile and markers of inflammation in patients with uncontrolled type 2 diabetes: A multicentre proof of concept, randomized double blind Placebo controlled
Vyankatesh Shivane, Harish Pathak, Sanjay Tamoli, K.R. Kohli, Raman Ghungralekar, Pranita Deshmukh, Amol Hartalkar, Swapnali Mahadik, Pradeep Indalkar, Bharat Mehta
Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome: Clinical Research & Reviews. 2022; 16(5): 102483
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
9 Targeted treatment for type 2 diabetes mellitus and sleep disorders from a clinical and neuroimaging perspective
Karen M. von Deneen, Malgorzata A. Garstka
Intelligent Medicine. 2022;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
10 Synthesis and characterization of 1-amidino-O-alkylureas metal complexes as a- glucosidase Inhibitors: Structure-activity relationship, molecular docking, and kinetic studies
Firouz Matloubi Moghaddam, Maryam Daneshfar, Zahra Daneshfar, Aida Iraji, Atefe Samandari-Najafabad, Mohammad Ali Faramarzi, Mohammad Mahdavi
Journal of Molecular Structure. 2022; 1250: 131726
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
11 Vitamin C intake potentially lowers total cholesterol to improve endothelial function in diabetic patients at increased risk of cardiovascular disease: A systematic review of randomized controlled trials
Phiwayinkosi V. Dludla, Bongani B. Nkambule, Tawanda M. Nyambuya, Khanyisani Ziqubu, Sihle E. Mabhida, Vuyolwethu Mxinwa, Kabelo Mokgalaboni, Fransina Ndevahoma, Sidney Hanser, Sithandiwe E. Mazibuko-Mbeje, Albertus K. Basson, Jacopo Sabbatinelli, Luca Tiano
Frontiers in Nutrition. 2022; 9
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
12 Effects of Yoga on Blood Glucose and Lipid Profile of Type 2 Diabetes Patients Without Complications: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Shanshan Chen, Shilin Deng, Yang Liu, Tiantian Yin
Frontiers in Sports and Active Living. 2022; 4
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
13 Ameliorative Effects of Annona muricata Leaf Ethanol Extract on Renal Morphology of Alloxan-Induced Mice
Supri Irianti Handayani, Mutiara Intan Permata Sari, Meilania Saraswati Sardjana, Kusmardi Kusmardi, Siti Nurbaya, Rosmalena Rosmalena, Ernawati Sinaga, Vivitri Dewi Prasasty
Applied Sciences. 2022; 12(18): 9141
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
14 Teucrium polium: Potential Drug Source for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Yaser Albadr, Andrew Crowe, Rima Caccetta
Biology. 2022; 11(1): 128
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
15 Evaluation of Safety of Stewart’s Wood Fern (Dryopteris stewartii) and Its Anti-Hyperglycemic Potential in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Mice
Uzma Hanif, Chand Raza, Iram Liaqat, Maryam Rani, Sherif M. Afifi, Tuba Esatbeyoglu, Saraj Bahadur, Sara Shahid
International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2022; 23(20): 12432
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
16 The Effect of Wet Cupping (Al-hijamah) and Limonene on Oxidative Stress and Biochemical Parameters in Diabetic Rats
Mohsen Alizadeh, Amirhossein Nafari, Forouzan Hadipour Moradi, Fatemeh Beyranvand, Hassan Ahmadvand, Mehdi Birjandi, Shahrokh Bagheri, Ali Asghar Kiani
Jundishapur Journal of Natural Pharmaceutical Products. 2022; In Press(In Press)
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
17 Effect of Acupuncture on Diabetic Neuropathy: A Narrative Review
Eunwoo Cho, Woojin Kim
International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2021; 22(16): 8575
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
18 Oral Administration of Gongronema latifolium Leaf Extract Modulates Gut Microflora and Blood Glucose of Induced Diabetic Rats
Ikechukwu K. Chukwudozie, Martina C. Agbo, Kenneth O. Ugwu, Ifeoma M. Ezeonu
Journal of Pure and Applied Microbiology. 2021; 15(1): 346
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
19 Cu-Based Conductive MOF Grown in situ on Cu Foam as a Highly Selective and Stable Non-Enzymatic Glucose Sensor
Qin Hu, Jie Qin, Xiao-Feng Wang, Guang-Ying Ran, Qiang Wang, Guang-Xiang Liu, Jian-Ping Ma, Jing-Yuan Ge, Hai-Ying Wang
Frontiers in Chemistry. 2021; 9
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
20 Catechin and other catechol-containing secondary metabolites: Bacterial biotransformation and regulation of carbohydrate metabolism
Sara Knezevic, Asma Ghafoor, Samaneh Mehri, Ali Barazi, Maksymilian Dziura, John F. Trant, Christopher A. Dieni
PharmaNutrition. 2021; 17: 100273
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
21 Deep eutectic solvents synthesis of perovskite type cerium aluminate embedded carbon nitride catalyst: High-sensitive amperometric platform for sensing of glucose in biological fluids
Umamaheswari Rajaji, Pattan-Siddappa Ganesh, Shen-Ming Chen, Mani Govindasamy, Sang-Youn Kim, Razan A. Alshgari, Ganesh Shimoga
Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry. 2021; 102: 312
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
22 Nanozyme-involved biomimetic cascade catalysis for biomedical applications
Xiaoli Cai, Lei Jiao, Hongye Yan, Yu Wu, Wenling Gu, Dan Du, Yuehe Lin, Chengzhou Zhu
Materials Today. 2021; 44: 211
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
23 The effect of acupressure on fasting blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin and stress in patients with type 2 diabetes
Maryam Salmani Mood, Zahra Yavari, Hamidreza Bahrami Taghanaki, Gholamhossein Mahmoudirad
Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice. 2021; 43: 101393
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
24 Synergistic effect enhances the peroxidase-like activity in platinum nanoparticle-supported metal—organic framework hybrid nanozymes for ultrasensitive detection of glucose
Jing Li, Jie Zhao, Shengqiang Li, Yang Chen, Weiqiang Lv, Jiahui Zhang, Libing Zhang, Zhen Zhang, Xiaoquan Lu
Nano Research. 2021; 14(12): 4689
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
25 In silico study to quantify the effect of exercise on surface GLUT4 translocation in diabetes management
Darshna M. Joshi, Jignesh Patel, Hardik Bhatt
Network Modeling Analysis in Health Informatics and Bioinformatics. 2021; 10(1)
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
26 Microplasma synthesis of Ni(OH)2 nanoflake array on carbon cloth as an efficient nonenzymatic sensor for glucose
Yilin Chen, Lu Yang, Xin Tang, Yu Zhang, Zhiyuan He, Yanying Liu, Xue Jiang, Xiaoli Xiong
Ionics. 2021; 27(6): 2739
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
27 The effect of daily intake of vitamin D-fortified yogurt drink, with and without added calcium, on serum adiponectin and sirtuins 1 and 6 in adult subjects with type 2 diabetes
Bahareh Nikooyeh, Bruce W. Hollis, Tirang R. Neyestani
Nutrition & Diabetes. 2021; 11(1)
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
28 Glucose oxidase decorated fluorescent metal–organic frameworks as biomimetic cascade nanozymes for glucose detection through the inner filter effect
Wenjie Jing, Fanbo Kong, Sijia Tian, Mincong Yu, Yunchao Li, Louzhen Fan, Xiaohong Li
The Analyst. 2021; 146(13): 4188
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
29 Omega-3 supplementation and diabetes: A systematic review and meta-analysis
Felipe Mendes Delpino, Lílian Munhoz Figueiredo, Bruna Gonçalves Cordeiro da Silva, Taiciane Gonçalves da Silva, Gicele Costa Mintem, Renata Moraes Bielemann, Denise Petrucci Gigante
Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition. 2021; : 1
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
30 Effect of tree nuts on glycemic outcomes in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a systematic review
Arti Muley, Ritin Fernandez, Laura Ellwood, Prasad Muley, Monali Shah
JBI Evidence Synthesis. 2021; 19(5): 966
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
31 A randomized, double-blind clinical trial of a herbal formulation (GlycaCare-II) for the management of type 2 diabetes in comparison with metformin
Muhammed Majeed, Anju Majeed, Kalyanam Nagabhusahnam, Lakshmi Mundkur, Shaji Paulose
Diabetology & Metabolic Syndrome. 2021; 13(1)
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
32 Lasia spinosa Chemical Composition and Therapeutic Potential: A Literature-Based Review
Rajib Hossain, Cristina Quispe, Jesús Herrera-Bravo, Md. Shahazul Islam, Chandan Sarkar, Muhammad Torequl Islam, Miquel Martorell, Natália Cruz-Martins, Ahmed Al-Harrasi, Ahmed Al-Rawahi, Javad Sharifi-Rad, Manshuk Ibrayeva, Sevgi Durna Dastan, Mohammed M. Alshehri, Daniela Calina, William C. Cho, German Gil
Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity. 2021; 2021: 1
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
33 Acute and Subchronic Toxicity Profile of a Polyherbal Drug Used in Sri Lankan Traditional Medicine
Donisha Shani Niharika Keembiya Liyanagamage, Susanthi Jayasinghe, Anoja Priyadarshani Attanayake, Veranja Karunaratne
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2020; 2020: 1
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
34 Bergenia pacumbis from Nepal, an astonishing enzymes inhibitor
Bishnu Prasad Pandey, Suman Prakash Pradhan, Kapil Adhikari, Saroj Nepal
BMC Complementary Medicine and Therapies. 2020; 20(1)
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
35 Electrical vestibular nerve stimulation as an adjunctive therapy in the management of type 2 diabetes
Sai Sailesh Kumar Goothy, Jason McKeown, Paul D. Mcgeoch, Srilatha B, Rajagopalan Vijayaraghavan, Ravikanth Manyam, Mahadik Vijay Khanderao
Journal of Basic and Clinical Physiology and Pharmacology. 2020; 0(0)
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
36 Trifolium pratense (Red Clover) Improve SIRT1 Expression and Glycogen Content in High Fat Diet-Streptozotocin Induced Type 2 Diabetes in Rats
Manisha J. Oza, Yogesh A. Kulkarni
Chemistry & Biodiversity. 2020; 17(4)
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
37 RSSDI-ESI Clinical Practice Recommendations for the Management of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus 2020
Rajeev Chawla, S. V. Madhu, B. M. Makkar, Sujoy Ghosh, Banshi Saboo, Sanjay Kalra
International Journal of Diabetes in Developing Countries. 2020; 40(S1): 1
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
38 Effects of hydrotherapy with massage on serum nerve growth factor concentrations and balance in middle aged diabetic neuropathy patients
Pouria Shourabi, Reza Bagheri, Damoon Ashtary-Larky, Alexei Wong, Mohamad S. Motevalli, Akram Hedayati, Julien S. Baker, Amir Rashidlamir
Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice. 2020; 39: 101141
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
39 NiCl(OH) nanosheet array as a high sensitivity electrochemical sensor for detecting glucose in human serum and saliva
Qiang Wang, Zhipeng Wang, Qiaoyan Dong, Ruoxi Yu, Haihong Zhu, Zhirong Zou, Huimin Yu, Ke Huang, Xue Jiang, Xiaoli Xiong
Microchemical Journal. 2020; 158: 105184
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
40 3D coral-like gold/carbon paper electrode modified with covalent and cross-linked enzyme aggregates for electrochemical sensing of glucose
Long Yan, Pengcheng Ma, Yichen Liu, Xiaoyan Ma, Fang Chen, Mengqi Li
Microchemical Journal. 2020; 159: 105347
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
41 Reconstructing hydrophobic ZIF-8 crystal into hydrophilic hierarchically-porous nanoflowers as catalyst carrier for nonenzymatic glucose sensing
Qizhen Zhu, Shiyu Hu, Linqun Zhang, Ying Li, Carlo Carraro, Roya Maboudian, Wei Wei, Anran Liu, Yuanjian Zhang, Songqin Liu
Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical. 2020; 313: 128031
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
42 A Comprehensive Review on Preclinical Diabetic Models
Anshul Shakya, Sushil Kumar Chaudary, Debapriya Garabadu, Hans Raj Bhat, Bibhuti Bhusan Kakoti, Surajit Kumar Ghosh
Current Diabetes Reviews. 2020; 16(2): 104
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
43 Herbal Medications for the Management of Diabetes Mellitus: A Review
Bilal A. Al-Jaidi, Haifa'a Marouf Odetallah, Balakumar Chandrasekaran, Razan Amro
Current Traditional Medicine. 2020; 6(4): 332
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
44 Progress of Advanced Nanomaterials in the Non-Enzymatic Electrochemical Sensing of Glucose and H2O2
Dayakar Thatikayala, Deepalekshmi Ponnamma, Kishor Sadasivuni, John-John Cabibihan, Abdulaziz Al-Ali, Rayaz Malik, Booki Min
Biosensors. 2020; 10(11): 151
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
Waseem Iqbal Khanday, Nazir Ahmad Wani, Balaji Paulraj
Journal of Experimental Biology and Agricultural Sciences. 2019; 7(1): 65
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
46 Acupuncture for the treatment of lower limb diabetic peripheral neuropathy: a systematic review
Jane Nash, Mike Armour, Stefania Penkala
Acupuncture in Medicine. 2019; 37(1): 3
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
47 Glucose Oxidase-Integrated Metal–Organic Framework Hybrids as Biomimetic Cascade Nanozymes for Ultrasensitive Glucose Biosensing
Weiqing Xu, Lei Jiao, Hongye Yan, Yu Wu, Lijuan Chen, Wenling Gu, Dan Du, Yuehe Lin, Chengzhou Zhu
ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces. 2019; 11(25): 22096
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
48 Nitrogen-Doped Graphene-Encapsulated Nickel Cobalt Nitride as a Highly Sensitive and Selective Electrode for Glucose and Hydrogen Peroxide Sensing Applications
Thangasamy Deepalakshmi, Duy Thanh Tran, Nam Hoon Kim, Kil To Chong, Joong Hee Lee
ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces. 2018; 10(42): 35847
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
49 Engineering multi-stage nickel oxide rod-on-sheet nanoarrays on Ni foam: A superior catalytic electrode for ultrahigh-performance electrochemical sensing of glucos
Yi Zhang,Dongyang Zhao,Wenxin Zhu,Wentao Zhang,Zhihao Yue,Jing Wang,Rong Wang,Daohong Zhang,Jianlong Wang,Guoyun Zhang
Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical. 2018; 255: 416
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
L Mohapatra, S. K Bhattamisra, R. C Panigrahy, S. Parida
INDIAN DRUGS. 2018; 55(01): 61
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
51 Promising Antidiabetic Drugs, Medicinal Plants and Herbs: An Update
Mohd Iqbal Yatoo,Archana Saxena,Arumugam Gopalakris,Mahmoud Alagawany,Kuldeep Dhama
International Journal of Pharmacology. 2017; 13(7): 732
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
52 Cobalt nitride nanowire array as an efficient electrochemical sensor for glucose and H 2 O 2 detection
Fengyu Xie,Xiaoqin Cao,Fengli Qu,Abdullah M. Asiri,Xuping Sun
Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical. 2017;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
53 Comparison of antioxidant activity of insulin, Ocimum gratissimum L., and Vernonia amygdalina L. in type 1 diabetic rat model
Uduak Akpan Okon,Idorenyin Udo Umoren
Journal of Integrative Medicine. 2017; 15(4): 302
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
54 A narrative review on role of Yoga as an adjuvant in the management of risk factor, disease progression and the complications of type 2 diabetes mellitus
A. Mooventhan
Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome: Clinical Research & Reviews. 2017;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
55 Phytoecdysteroids from Ajuga iva act as potential antidiabetic agent against alloxan-induced diabetic male albino rats
Jin-Jun Wang,Hao Jin,Shao-Ling Zheng,Peng Xia,Yong Cai,Xiao-Jie Ni
Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy. 2017; 96: 480
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
56 Copper-Nitride Nanowires Array: An Efficient Dual-Functional Catalyst Electrode for Sensitive and Selective Non-Enzymatic Glucose and Hydrogen Peroxide Sensing
Zao Wang,Xiaoqin Cao,Danni Liu,Shuai Hao,Rongmei Kong,Gu Du,Abdullah M. Asiri,Xuping Sun
Chemistry - A European Journal. 2017; 23(21): 4986
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
57 Fe3 N-Co2 N Nanowires Array: A Non-Noble-Metal Bifunctional Catalyst Electrode for High-Performance Glucose Oxidation and H2 O2 Reduction toward Non-Enzymatic Sensing Applications
Dan Zhou,Xiaoqin Cao,Zao Wang,Shuai Hao,Xiandeng Hou,Fengli Qu,Gu Du,Abdullah M. Asiri,Chengbin Zheng,Xuping Sun
Chemistry - A European Journal. 2017; 23(22): 5214
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
58 Aromatherapy Massage for Neuropathic Pain and Quality of Life in Diabetic Patients
Zehra Gok Metin,Ayse Arikan Donmez,Nur Izgu,Leyla Ozdemir,Ismail Emre Arslan
Journal of Nursing Scholarship. 2017;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
59 The effect of flour from the rind of the yellow passion fruit on glycemic control of people with diabetes mellitus type 2: a randomized clinical trial
Márcio Flávio Moura de Araújo,Vivian Saraiva Veras,Roberto Wagner Júnior Freire de Freitas,Maria do Livramento de Paula,Thiago Moura de Araújo,Lilian Raquel Alexandre Uchôa,Maria Wendiane Gueiros Gaspar,Maria da Conceição do Santos Olivei Cunha,Maria Aparecida Alves de Oliveira Serra,Carolina Maria de Lima Carvalho,Edmara Chaves Costa,Marta Maria Coelho Damasceno
Journal of Diabetes & Metabolic Disorders. 2017; 16(1)
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
60 In VitroandIn Vivoa-Glucosidase and a-Amylase Inhibitory Effects of the Water Extract of Leaves of Pepper (Capcicum AnnuumL. CultivarDangjo) and the Active Constituent Luteolin 7-O-Glucoside
Mi-Sung Park,Ya Xin Zhu,Hyun-Ock Pae,Seong Hoon Park
Journal of Food Biochemistry. 2016; : n/a
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
61 Assessment of essential oil as a potential anti-obesity agent: a narrative review
Aswir Abd Rashed,Mohd Naeem Mohd Nawi,Kasmawati Sulaiman
Journal of Essential Oil Research. 2016; : 1
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
62 Ternary NiCoP nanosheet array on a Ti mesh: a high-performance electrochemical sensor for glucose detection
Zao Wang,Xiaoqin Cao,Danni Liu,Shuai Hao,Gu Du,Abdullah M. Asiri,Xuping Sun
Chem. Commun.. 2016;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
63 Effective seed-assisted synthesis of gold nanoparticles anchored nitrogen-doped graphene for electrochemical detection of glucose and dopamine
Tran Duy Thanh,Jayaraman Balamurugan,Seung Hee Lee,Nam Hoon Kim,Joong Hee Lee
Biosensors and Bioelectronics. 2016; 81: 259
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
64 Controversy of oral hypoglycemic agents in type 2 diabetes mellitus: Novel move towards combination therapies
Abhijit A. Ghadge,Aniket A. Kuvalekar
Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome: Clinical Research & Reviews. 2016;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
65 Role of yoga for patients with type II diabetes mellitus: A systematic review and meta-analysis
Vinod Kumar,Aarti Jagannathan,Mariamma Philip,Arun Thulasi,Praveen Angadi,Nagarathna Raghuram
Complementary Therapies in Medicine. 2016; 25: 104
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
66 Three-Dimensional Ni2P Nanoarray: An Efficient Catalyst Electrode for Sensitive and Selective Nonenzymatic Glucose Sensing with High Specificity
Tao Chen,Danni Liu,Wenbo Lu,Kunyang Wang,Gu Du,Abdullah M. Asiri,Xuping Sun
Analytical Chemistry. 2016; 88(16): 7885
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
67 Efficacy and Safety of PDM011011 Capsules as Compared to Metformin in Subjects with Type-2 Diabetes Mellitus: An Open-Label, Randomized, Active-Controlled, Multicentric, Phase III Study
Ashish C. Suthar,Vikas G. Pai,Yogesh Kadam,Aniruddha Tongaonkar,Shailaja Kale,Atul B. Deshpande,Sharat Kolke,Snehal Tanna,Shrikant V. Deshpande,Purvi Chawla,Debjit Biswas,Somesh Sharma
Journal of Diabetes Mellitus. 2016; 06(01): 38
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
68 Chemical composition and evaluation of possible alpha glucosidase inhibitory activity of eight Aloe species
Mohamed El Sayed Abeer,Mohamed Ezzat Shahira,Nabil Khalil Mohammed,Salah El Hawary Seham
Journal of Medicinal Plants Research. 2016; 10(13): 167
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
69 Agrimonia eupatoria L. and Cynara cardunculus L. Water Infusions: Comparison of Anti-Diabetic Activities
Anika Kuczmannová,Andrea Balažová,Eva Racanská,Miroslava Kameníková,Silvia Fialová,Jaroslav Majerník,Milan Nagy,Peter Gál,Pavel Mucaji
Molecules. 2016; 21(5): 564
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
70 In vitrostudies on the pleotropic antidiabetic effects of zinc oxide nanoparticles
Swati C Asani,Rinku D Umrani,Kishore M Paknikar
Nanomedicine. 2016; 11(13): 1671
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
71 An Extended Minimal Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Model: Evaluation of Type II Diabetes Mellitus and Diabetic Nephropathy on Human IgG Pharmacokinetics in Rats
Gurkishan S. Chadha,Marilyn E. Morris
The AAPS Journal. 2015; 17(6): 1464
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
72 Role of Fenugreek in the prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus in prediabetes
Arpana Gaddam,Chandrakala Galla,Sreenivas Thummisetti,Ravi Kumar Marikanty,Uma D. Palanisamy,Paturi V. Rao
Journal of Diabetes & Metabolic Disorders. 2015; 14(1)
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
73 Anti-diabetic effects of Caulerpa lentillifera: stimulation of insulin secretion in pancreatic ß-cells and enhancement of glucose uptake in adipocytes
Bhesh Raj Sharma,Dong Young Rhyu
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine. 2014; 4(7): 575
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
74 Pyrroloquinoline quinone protects mouse brain endothelial cells from high glucose-induced damage in vitro
Zhong Wang,Guo-qiang Chen,Gui-ping Yu,Chang-jian Liu
Acta Pharmacologica Sinica. 2014;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
75 Antihyperglycaemic effect of laser acupuncture treatment at BL20 in diabetic rats
Jorge Cornejo-Garrido,Flavia Becerril-Chávez,Gabriel Carlín-Vargas,Juan Manuel Ordoñez-Rodríguez,María del Carmen Abrajan-González,Rosario de la Cruz-Ramírez,Cynthia Ordaz-Pichardo
Acupuncture in Medicine. 2014; 32(6): 486
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
76 Anti-nociceptive effect of aspirin-pharmaceutical acupuncture in animal models
Hyun-Ja Jeong,Min-Gi Kim,Jeong-Hwa Kim,Hyung-Min Kim
Journal of Drug Delivery Science and Technology. 2014; 24(5): 548
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
77 Glycaemic control and quality of life among ethnically diverse Malaysian diabetic patients
Aqil Mohammad Daher,Syed Ahmad H. AlMashoor,Than Winn
Quality of Life Research. 2014;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
78 Effects of Chinese Fructus Mume formula and its separated prescription extract on insulin resistance in type 2 diabetic rats
Jing-bin Li,Li-jun Xu,Hui Dong,Zhao-yi Huang,Yan Zhao,Guang Chen,Fu-er Lu
Journal of Huazhong University of Science and Technology [Medical Sciences]. 2013; 33(6): 877
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
79 Traditional Indian medicines used for the management of diabetes mellitus
Rizvi, S.I. and Mishra, N.
Journal of Diabetes Research. 2013; 2013(712092)
80 An aqueous extract of Murraya koenigii leaves induces paraoxonase 1 activity in streptozotocin induced diabetic mice
Saha, A. and Mazumder, S.
Food and Function. 2013; 4(3): 420-425
81 Antioxidant and antibacterial activity of leaf extracts from four agroforestry species located in Colombian orinoquia [Actividad antioxidante y antibacteriana de extractos de hojas de cuatro especies agroforestales de la orinoquía Colombiana]
Pabón Baquero, L.C. and Vanegas Gordillo, J. and Rendón Fernández, M.R. and Santos Arias, R. and Hernández Rodríguez, P.
Revista Cubana de Plantas Medicinales. 2013; 18(1): 57-70
82 Patterns of complementary and alternative medicine use among a group of patients with type 2 diabetes receiving outpatient care in Singapore
Peijin Esther Monica Fan,Moon Fai Chan,Yoke Ling Chan,Siew Lin Serena Koh
International Journal of Nursing Practice. 2013; 19: 44
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
83 An aqueous extract of Murraya koenigii leaves induces paraoxonase 1 activity in streptozotocin induced diabetic mice
Adrija Saha,Santasree Mazumder
Food & Function. 2013; 4(3): 420
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
84 Nutritional supplements for diabetes sold on the internet: business or health promotion?
Loredana Covolo,Michela Capelli,Elisabetta Ceretti,Donatella Feretti,Luigi Caimi,Umberto Gelatti
BMC Public Health. 2013; 13(1): 777
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
85 Traditional Indian Medicines Used for the Management of Diabetes Mellitus
Syed Ibrahim Rizvi,Neetu Mishra
Journal of Diabetes Research. 2013; 2013: 1
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
86 C-4 Gem-Dimethylated Oleanes of Gymnema sylvestre and Their Pharmacological Activities
Giovanni Di Fabio,Valeria Romanucci,Mauro Zarrelli,Michele Giordano,Armando Zarrelli
Molecules. 2013; 18(12): 14892
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
87 Periodontal therapy - An adjuvant for glycemic control
Gurav, A.N.
Diabetes and Metabolic Syndrome: Clinical Research and Reviews. 2012; 6(4): 218-223
88 Periodontal therapy – An adjuvant for glycemic control
Abhijit N. Gurav
Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome: Clinical Research & Reviews. 2012; 6(4): 218
[Pubmed] | [DOI]


    Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
 Related articles
    Access Statistics
    Email Alert *
    Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)  

  In this article
    Pathophysiology ...
   Conventional Therapy
    Pharmacological ...
    Need and Scope o...
   Alternative Approach
    Physical Interve...
   Dietary Supplement
    Miscellaneous ap...
    Article Tables

 Article Access Statistics
    PDF Downloaded988    
    Comments [Add]    
    Cited by others 88    

Recommend this journal