Journal of Pharmacy And Bioallied Sciences
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Year : 2018  |  Volume : 10  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 144-158

Pharmaceutico-analytical study of Kushtae Shangarf prepared with Jozbua (Myristica fragrans Houtt.) and Phitkari (alum)

1 Department of Ilmul Saidla (Unani Pharmacy), National Institute of Unani Medicine (NIUM), Bengaluru, Karnataka, India
2 Department of Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Hamiduddin
Department of Ilmul Saidla (Unani Pharmacy), National Institute of Unani Medicine (NIUM), Kottigepalya, Magadi Main Road, Bengaluru, Karnataka 560091
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/JPBS.JPBS_25_17

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Introduction: Kushta of Shangarf (KS) is in therapeutic use since long time in Unani and Ayurvedic medicine. It requires extensive assessment with respect to its safety and processing because of the presence of mercury. KS prepared with Shangarf (HgS), Phitkari (alum), and Jozbua (Myristica fragrans Houtt.) was selected for the study. It is indicated as tonic, increases blood production, and improves complexion of face. Preparation of KS by classical and contemporary method and its comparative physicochemical analysis was attempted in this work. Materials and Methods: Kushta was prepared by incinerating the drugs kept inside Buta in Bhatti with 24kg of Uple (cow-dung cakes) and also in muffle furnace. Samples obtained were evaluated by Unani specifications (test), powder characterizations, loss on drying, pH, ash value, solubility, particle size, and qualitative estimation of organic and inorganic constituents, X-ray diffraction (XRD), quantitative estimation by inductively coupled plasma–mass spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma–optical emission spectrometry, and so on. Results: Physicochemical standards set in were comparable in KS prepared by classical method (KSCM) and in KS prepared by muffle furnace method (KSMFM), except water-soluble ash and solubility in water were found slightly more in KSMFM. XRD study revealed the presence of aluminum oxide phase and absence of mercury in both the samples. Quantitative estimation of elements in both the samples in decreasing order are as follows: sulfur > aluminum > calcium > iron > arsenic. Arsenic was found more than iron in KSCM at parts per million level. Conclusion: Preliminary understanding suggests that muffle furnace method could be a better option with respect to safety and ease of preparation. Shangarf incinerated above 900°C with Phitkari and Jaiphal did not show presence of mercury in both the samples, indicating KS prepared by incinerating at higher temperature can be safer than unroasted preparation. Studied formulation can be recommended or used for its indications without the concern of mercury toxicity.

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