|Year : 2021 | Volume
| Issue : 5 | Page : 97-100
Evaluation of healing of periapical tissue in permanent incisors with open apices after unintentional extrusion of mineral trioxide aggregate – A retrospective study
Sonali Roy1, Archana Kumari2, Praveen Chandra3, Ritika Agarwal4, Pinki Bankoti5, Farah Ahmed6
1 Department of Dentistry, Nalanda Medical College and Hospital, Patna, Bihar, India
2 Department of Dentistry, VIMS Pawapuri (Nalanda), Patna, Bihar, India
3 Department of Prosthodontics, Buddha Institute of Dental Sciences and Hospital, Patna, Bihar, India
4 Department of Dentistry, Patna Medical College and Hospital, Patna, Bihar, India
5 Department of Dentistry, Institute of dental sciences, Bareilly, Uttar Pradesh, India
6 Private Practitioner, Patna, Bihar, India
|Date of Submission||23-Sep-2020|
|Date of Decision||26-Sep-2020|
|Date of Acceptance||27-Sep-2020|
|Date of Web Publication||05-Jun-2021|
Department of Prosthodontics, Buddha Institute of Dental Sciences and Hospital, Patna - 800 020, Bihar
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
| Abstract|| |
Aim: The aim of the present study was to retrospectively assess the healing of periapical lesions in permanent central incisors with open apices after unintentional extrusion of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA). Materials and Methods: The clinical and radiographic records of 75 maxillary permanent central teeth treated by MTA apexification were evaluated. Teeth with unintentionally extruded MTA formed the study group (Group 1, n = 28), whereas the teeth with no MTA extrusion formed the control group (Group 2, n = 47). For both the groups, the records were analyzed for a follow-up period of 3 years. Results: Complete healing (CH) was observed in 25 teeth in the study group, whereas all the teeth in the control group showed CH (P > 0.05). Within the study group, 6 teeth (21%) showed CH in the 6th month in Group 1, whereas in the control group, 34 teeth (72.3%) showed CH (P < 0.001). At the 1-year follow-up appointment, 19 teeth (67.8%) showed CH in Group 1, whereas 9 teeth (19.1%) showed the same result in Group 2 (P < 0.001). At the end of the 3-year follow-up period, it was noticed that in 21 (84%) teeth, extruded MTA remained unchanged, whereas it was reduced in 4 (16%) of them (P < 0.001). Conclusion: Extrusion of MTA does not have a significant effect on the healing of the periapical lesion. However, it may lead to a delay in the healing of periapical healing. Patients should be informed about the complication and consequences of extruded MTA and should be kept on follow-up to observe periapical healing.
Keywords: Apexification, mineral trioxide aggregate, periapical healing
|How to cite this article:|
Roy S, Kumari A, Chandra P, Agarwal R, Bankoti P, Ahmed F. Evaluation of healing of periapical tissue in permanent incisors with open apices after unintentional extrusion of mineral trioxide aggregate – A retrospective study. J Pharm Bioall Sci 2021;13, Suppl S1:97-100
|How to cite this URL:|
Roy S, Kumari A, Chandra P, Agarwal R, Bankoti P, Ahmed F. Evaluation of healing of periapical tissue in permanent incisors with open apices after unintentional extrusion of mineral trioxide aggregate – A retrospective study. J Pharm Bioall Sci [serial online] 2021 [cited 2022 Nov 30];13, Suppl S1:97-100. Available from: https://www.jpbsonline.org/text.asp?2021/13/5/97/317539
| Introduction|| |
Pulpal involvement due to caries or trauma in a newly erupted permanent tooth can lead to loss of pulp vitality, thus directly affecting the development of root. It may result in short roots and thin walls, producing a higher risk of fracture, affecting the prognosis of the tooth. Apexification was introduced to generate a calcific barrier in roots with open apices or for the sustained apical development of an incomplete root in teeth with necrotic pulp. Various materials are avaialble for this purpose, with calcium hydroxide being the most commonly used, but its multiple shortcomings such as multiple visits, increased chances of tooth fracture, and increased clinical cost led to the utilization of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) to fill the apical end.
The various properties of MTA such as biocompatibility, sealing properties, and ability to promote periradicular regeneration make it a material of choice for apexification. Furthermore, MTA minimizes the sittings as apexification with MTA takes one or two visits, thus reducing the risk of vertical or oblique root fractures. During the apexification procedure, MTA is vertically condensed into the canal, leading to unintentional extrusion of the material into periapical tissues because of open apices. The literature reports many case series with the extrusion of MTA during the apexification process. However, limited data is available on the status of periapical healing after the extrusion of MTA.
Thus, the main purpose of our study was to retrospectively assess the healing of periapical tissue in permanent incisors with open apices after unintentional extrusion of MTA.
| Materials and Methods|| |
The present study was conducted by the department of pedodontics with patient consent and was approved by the institute's ethical committee. Records of 60 healthy patients (37 males and 23 females; age range 8–12 years) who underwent apexification for maxillary central incisor (n = 75) between 2015 and 2019 with MTA were evaluated. Patients with a follow-up period of 3 years were included in the study.
- Teeth with periapical pathology irrespective of the pathology size
- Patient with 3 years of clinical and radiographic follow-up that were treated with MTA apexification procedure.
- Teeth with a root fracture or perforation.
Teeth were divided into two groups: Group 1 forms the study group (Group 1, n = 28), that consists of filled teeth with unintentional extrusion of MTA, which was confirmed by two observers, that is, an oral radiologist and a pedodontist. Teeth with no MTA extrusion formed the control group (Group 2, n = 47).
For every tooth, the clinical and radiographic records were evaluated from the beginning and at 3-month, 6-month, 1-year, 2-year, and 3-year follow-ups. The same two observers evaluated both the clinical and radiographic records and reached to the final decision by Halse and Molven method.
According to the procedure, periapical healing was divided into groups as shown in [Table 1].
The amount of the MTA extruded unintentionally was radiographically observed in the follow-up periods and was recorded as either unchanged, reduced, almost absent, or absent.
The percentages of CH, PH, and NH within the study and control groups were compared. Their percentage was also calculated and analyzed within the same groups according to the follow-up periods. IN addition, the resorption of extruded MTA was recorded in every follow-up for each parameter of periapical healing. The Chi-square test was used for the statistical analysis (SPSS Inc., version 19.0, Chicago, IL, USA), and P ≤ 0.05 was considered statistically significant.
| Results|| |
The results for the periapical healing of both are shown in [Table 2]. It was seen that after the 3-year follow-up, the difference in periapical healing between the study and control groups was not statistically significant (P > 0.05) for CH: it was observed in 25 teeth (89.2%) in the study group, whereas in the control group, it was seen in all the 47 teeth (100%). When the teeth with complete healing (CH) were considered during follow-up periods in both groups, 4 teeth showed CH (8.5%) in the 3rd month in Group 2, whereas none of the teeth in the group showed CH at the same session. In 6-month follow-up session, 6 teeth (21%) showed CH in the 6th month in Group 1, whereas in the control group, 34 teeth (72.3%) showed CH. The difference between them was statistically significant (P < 0.001). At the 1-year follow-up appointment, 19 teeth (67.8%) showed CH in Group 1, whereas 9 teeth (19.1%) showed the same result in Group 2 (P < 0.001). At the 2- and 3-year follow-up, the teeth that had shown CH in both groups were still in the same condition, and no signs of an apical inflammation were observed in these teeth. In Group 1, one tooth (3.5%) showed NH at the 2-year session, whereas two teeth (7.1%) were still in the condition of IH at the end of the 3rd year.
|Table 2: Periapical healing results after each follow-up period for the different groups studied|
Click here to view
[Table 3] shows the amount of extruded MTA for the CH, IH, and NH groups for the study group. It was seen that in 21 (84%) teeth extruded, MTA remained unchanged, whereas it was reduced in 4 (16%) of them (P < 0.001).
|Table 3: Changes in amount of extruded mineral trioxide aggregate for complete healing, partial healing, and no healing groups in the groups|
Click here to view
[Table 4] shows the amount of MTA as apices of teeth at different follow-ups. It was seen that after I year in teeth no change was seen in the extruded MTA in 68% of the teeth, whereas 32% of the teeth showed reduced extruded MTA; at the 2nd-year follow-up, MTA was unchanged in 8 (32%) teeth and was reduced in 17 (68%) teeth. On the other hand, at the end of the 3-year follow-up period, the amount of extruded MTA was observed to be significantly reduced in 21 teeth (84%) (P < 0.05), as shown in [Table 4]. In three teeth (12%), the extruded material was almost absent [Table 4], whereas the amount of extruded MTA was unchanged in two teeth (8%).
|Table 4: Distribution of teeth according to unchanged, reduced, almost absent, and absent amounts of extruded mineral trioxide aggregate at the beginning and at 1-, 2-, and 3-year follow-ups|
Click here to view
| Discussion|| |
Immature teeth have a wide, apical opening, thus achieving a favorable apical seal in these teeth is difficult. It necessitates the use of a large amount of filling material that may project into the periapical area, triggering inflammatory reactions. The absence of an apical seat or step may also result in the squeezing material projecting apically. Special placement techniques have also been suggested for MTA delivery to minimize the projection of the material. Despite advances in dentistry, sometimes apical projection of the material occurs while filling the canal from an orthograde direction. This may result in various complications such as delayed healing of periapical infection, severe inflammation, necrosis of the bone tissue, or foreign body reaction. Several studies have documented the different results regarding the healing of lesion and resorption of MTA. It ranges from no healing to complete healing of the lesion; however, the data on the status of healing and resorption at different follow-ups are still lacking.
MTA offers various benefits because of its superior physiochemical and bioactive properties. It helps form an effective seal against dentin and cementum, thus helping in root-end induction and helping in perforation repair. It also enhances the biologic repair and regeneration of the periodontal ligament (PDL). Due to the above-mentioned properties, the use of MTA as an obturation material provides long-term benefits that enhance the prognosis and retention of the natural dentition. El-Meligy and Avery in their study compared MTA with calcium hydroxide (Ca[OH]2) clinically and radiographically as materials used to induce root-end closure in necrotic permanent teeth with immature apices (apexification). They found that MTA is a better material than calcium hydroxide and can be used as a replacement material in teeth with immature apices. Similar results were shown by Damle et al. and Pradhan et al. in their studies.
Thus, in the present study, records of patients with open apices and periapical lesion in whom unintentional extrusion of MTA occurred while apexification was evaluated at different periods. Mente et al. in their study showed the healing rate of 85% in MTA-treated teeth with periapical radiolucencies as compared to 96% of teeth without preoperative periapical radiolucencies, which was comparable to the healed lesion of 100% [Table 2] in our study in Group 2.
Chang et al. in their case series concluded that direct contact with MTA had no harmful effects on the healing of the periapical tissues. All the three cases attained complete healing by 36–54 months. The results were in accordance with our study, whereby at the end of 1 year, 89% of cases have achieved complete healing, thus showing that extruded MTA does not affect the healing of the periapical tissue. The present study results were also in agreement with Azim et al., who reported that the average time required for a periapical lesion to heal was 11.78 months [Table 2], which was similar to our finding. Our study also showed that extruded MTA does not affect the healing.
Tahan et al. in their case series reported that extruded MTA through the periradicular lesion associated with necrotic pulps shows no complications and teeth are free of symptoms throughout the healing period, which was similar to our results, in which only one (3%) [Table 2] tooth showed no healing. In their case series, complete resorption of the filling material did not occur, although the periradicular and periextrusion radiolucency disappeared after 12-month recall, which was similar to our results which showed that although the marked reduction in MTA was seen at the end of 3-year follow-up [Table 4], it was not wholly absent. Similar results were observed by the case series reported by Comin Chiaramonti and Cavalleri. They found that at follow-up, the tooth was asymptomatic after MTA extrusion in molar and at repair of the lesion was evident radiographically. Our results were also in accordance with the study performed by Demiriz et al., who showed that MTA extrusion was reduced in 85% and was almost absent in 10% teeth compared with 84% and 12%, respectively, in our study.
The present study's findings showed that the extrusion of MTA does not have a significant effect on the healing of the periapical lesion. However, it may lead to a delay in the healing of periapical healing. Patients should be informed about the complication and consequences of extruded MTA and should be kept on follow up to observe periapical healing.
| Conclusion|| |
MTA has proved to be superior to other materials due to its biochemical and physical nature. Its root induction property effectively forms a seal against dentin and cementum, helping in perforation repair. It also promotes the biologic repair and regeneration of the periodontal ligament. Our study showed that extrusion of MTA in periapical lesion does not have major effect on the healing of the peri-radicular tissue. However, it takes times for the complete resorption of MTA to occur and hence follow-up should be kept to observe the healing and resorption of MTA.
Financial support and sponsorship
Conflicts of interest
There are no conflicts of interest.
| References|| |
Guerrero F, Mendoza A, Ribas D, Aspiazu K. Apexification: A systematic review. J Conserv Dent 2018;21:462.
] [Full text]
Paulindraraj S, Venkatesan R, Suprakasam S, Christopher A. Apexification-Then and now: A Review. Int J Dent Med Res 2015;1:193.
Nagmode PS, Satpute AB, Patel AV, Ladhe PL. The effect of mineral trioxide aggregate on the periapical tissues after unintentional extrusion beyond the apical foramen. Case Rep Dent 2016;2016:3590680.
Halse A, Molven O. A strategy for the diagnosis of periapicalpathosis. J Endod 1986;12:534-8.
Chang SW, Oh TS, Lee W, Cheung GS, Kim HC. Long-term observation of the mineral trioxide aggregate extrusion into the periapical lesion: A case series. Int J Oral Sci 2013;5:54-7.
Demiriz L, Bodrumlu EH. Severe unintentional extrusion of mineral trioxide aggregate during apexification. Indian J Dent Res 2017;28:341-3.
] [Full text]
Bogen G, Kuttler S. Mineral trioxide aggregate obturation: A review and case series. J Endod 2009;35:777-90.
El-Meligy OA, Avery DR. Comparison of apexification with mineral trioxide aggregate and calcium hydroxide. Pediatr Dent 2006;28:248-53.
Damle SG, Bhattal H, Loomba A. Apexification of anterior teeth: A comparative evaluation of mineral trioxide aggregate and calcium hydroxide paste. J Clin Pediatr Dent 2012;36:263-8.
Pradhan DP, Chawla HS, Gauba K, Goyal A. Comparative evaluation of endodontic management of teeth with unformed apices with mineral trioxide aggregate and calcium hydroxide. J Dent Child (Chic) 2006;73:79-85.
Mente J, Leo M, Panagidis D, Ohle M, Schneider S, Lorenzo Bermejo J, et al
. Treatment outcome of mineral trioxide aggregate in open apex teeth. J Endod 2013;39:20-6.
Azim AA, Griggs JA, Huang GT. The Tennessee study: Factors affecting treatment outcome and healing time following nonsurgical root canal treatment. Int Endod J 2016;49:6-16.
Tahan E, Celik D, Er K, Taşdemir T. Effect of unintentionally extruded mineral trioxide aggregate in treatment of tooth with periradicular lesion: A case report. J Endod 2010;36:760-3.
Comin Chiaramonti L, Cavalleri G. Effect of unintentionally extruded mineral trioxide aggregate in treatment of root perforation with periradicular lesion: A case report. Minerva Stomatol 2011;60:217-22.
Demiriz L, Hazar Bodrumlu E. Retrospective evaluation of healing of periapical lesions after unintentional extrusion of mineral trioxide aggregate. J Appl Biomater Funct Mater 2017;15:e382-6.
[Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4]