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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2021  |  Volume : 13  |  Issue : 6  |  Page : 1215-1223

The association between chronic heroin smoking and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease


1 Department of Clinical Pharmacy, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Gelugore 11800, Penang, Malaysia
2 Department of Clinical Pharmacy, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Gelugore 11800; Advanced Medical and Dental Institute, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Bertam, Jln Tun Hamdan Sheikh Tahir, 13200 Kepala Batas, Penang, Malaysia
3 Department of Clinical Pharmacy, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Gelugore 11800, Penang, Malaysia; Chest Department, Penang General Hospital, Georgetown 10990, Penang, Malaysia

Correspondence Address:
Amer Hayat Khan
Department of Clinical Pharmacy, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Gelugore 11800, Penang
Malaysia
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/jpbs.jpbs_353_21

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Introduction: Little is known about the correlation between chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and heroin smoking. Heroin smoking is a recent underinvestigated problem. The goal of this study is to study the impact of heroin smoking among COPD patients. Methods: This is a descriptive clinical study. A combination of self-reporting questionnaires and data extraction tools were used to collect information during baseline tests, interviews, and follow-ups. Patients' medical, clinical, and socioeconomic history were recorded. Participants were recruited using random sampling from multiple centers. Results: Out of 1034 COPD patients, heroin smokers represented the vast majority of addiction cases (n = 133). Heroin smokers were leaner than non-addicts (19.78 ± 4.07 and 24.01 ± 5.6, respectively). The most common type of comorbidities among heroin smokers was emphysema (27%). Both the forced expiratory volume (FEV1)/forced vital capacity ratio and FEV1% predicted were lower among heroin smokers than non-addicts (52.79 ± 12.71 and 48.54 ± 14.38, respectively). The majority of heroin smokers (55%) had advanced COPD, and at least 15% of heroin smokers suffered from frequent respiratory failure. The mean ± SD for COPD onset age among heroin smokers was 44.23 ± 5.72, and it showed a statistically significant correlation (P < 0.001). Conclusion: Heroin smoking might be linked to the onset of COPD. Heroin smokers showed a significantrespiratory impairment compared to tobacco smokers of the same age group.


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