|Year : 2022 | Volume
| Issue : 2 | Page : 57-71
Natural radioprotectors on current and future perspectives: A mini-review
Pooja Shivappa1, Grisilda Vidya Bernhardt2
1 Department of Basic Sciences, Central Research Laboratory, RAK Medical and Health Sciences University, Ras Al Khaimah, UAE
2 Department of Biochemistry, Central Research Laboratory, RAK Medical and Health Sciences University, Ras Al Khaimah, UAE
|Date of Submission||25-Jul-2021|
|Date of Decision||30-Nov-2021|
|Date of Acceptance||20-Dec-2021|
|Date of Web Publication||18-Jul-2022|
Dr. Pooja Shivappa
Department of Basic Sciences, Central Research Laboratory, RAK Medical and Health Sciences University, Ras Al Khaimah
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
| Abstract|| |
Radiation therapy is used as the primary treatment for cancer. Eighty percent of cancer patients require radiation therapy during treatment or for medical purposes. During treatment, radiation causes various biological defects in the cells. The prevalence of cytotoxicity limits the dose used for effective treatment. This method is designed to strike a balance between removing cancer cells and protecting normal tissues. Unfortunately, effective radiation is unavailable once acute toxicity occurs during clinical radiation therapy. Therefore, a lot of research interest is needed in the discovery of radioprotective drugs to accelerate treatment to reduce this toxicity (i.e., normal tissue toxicity to cancer cell death). Radiation protectors may be chemicals or drugs that minimize the damage caused due to radiation therapy in living organisms. The determination of effective and nontoxic radiation protection is an essential goal for radiation oncologists and basic radiobiologists. However, despite the advantages, many radioprotectors were found to have disadvantages which include cost, less duration, toxicity, and effect on the central nervous system. Therefore in recent years, the focus has been diverted to finding out optimal natural products to act as radioprotectors. Natural radiation protectors are plant compounds that protect normal (noncancerous) cells from damage from radiation therapy. Natural herbal products are nontoxic with proven therapeutic benefits and have long been used to treat various diseases. In conclusion, we find that there are various radiation protectors with different purposes and mechanisms of action.
Keywords: DNA damage, radiation, radioprotectors
|How to cite this article:|
Shivappa P, Bernhardt GV. Natural radioprotectors on current and future perspectives: A mini-review. J Pharm Bioall Sci 2022;14:57-71
| Introduction|| |
Radiation therapy is one of the most effective treatments for cancer patients. Approximately 60% of all cancer patients get ionizing radiation (IR) as part of their treatment procedure. IR is a powerful tool to kill cancer cells, but it is also toxic to normal cells and causes cell damage and various side effects. IR directly or indirectly affects biological molecules. The direct effect of IR is affected by direct contact with different parts of DNA, and indirect effects using reactive oxygen species (ROS) originating from surrounding DNA molecules. Since biological systems contain 75%–90% water, the indirect effect is due to the reaction of water to radiolysis products (OH: hydroxyl radicals, solvent electrons, and hydrogen atoms) with DNA. Hydroxyl groups are highly reactive, have a strong oxidizing effect, and can react differently with all cellular components. DNA, lipids, and proteins are the main targets for hydroxyl radical attack. In response to IR-induced DNA damage, ROS formation, and cell death, the release of damage-related molecules and cytokines or chemokines activates the immune system and causes inflammation. This immune activation results in an acute inflammatory phase characterized by an enhanced anti-inflammatory response. The signaling of inflammation and repair after IR leads to a chronic phase of IR injury, in parallel with mitotic cell death and subsequent release of cytokines and growth factors. It has been observed that multiple diseases are found to be associated with IR response, including diseases caused by acute stage lesions (inflammation of various organs) or chronic stage lesions (blood vessel damage, fibrosis, secondary malignancy, atrophy, and infertility).
Attention has to be provided during IR to protect the healthy cells during the procedure. To this end, technical improvements in the IR delivery procedure, the accuracy of treatment, and pharmacological agents used for the treatment regime are the subject of recent research. The National Cancer Institute's IR Research Program proposed pharmacological classification of the following drugs with IR-protective properties based on the timing of administration: (a) protection, (b) palliative, and (c) therapeutic.
Ideal radioprotective compounds should shield the healthy cells of the body from the harmful effects of the IR but should not prevent the effectiveness of the IR on the tumor cells. Radioprotectors are used as a strategy to avoid exposure to chemicals according to the proposed classification schedule. It is used to prevent acute or chronic effects before radiation therapy or infrared radiation. IR therapy is used during and after treatment to reduce side effects or chronic effects and is administered after the onset of symptoms. Many compounds have been studied as radiation protectors, modifiers, and therapeutics and are currently in the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) or FDA-Examined New Drug (IND) for approval.
| Study Methodology|| |
The current article is a mini-review of the existing literature on radioprotectors. A search of the PubMed and Google Scholar was undertaken using the search terms “Radio protectors” “review” in various permutations and combinations. We also searched for referenced papers to identify further studies. A total of 360 review papers on radio protectors out of which 317 papers extending back to the year 2005 using MeSH terms. Out of these 66 papers, were included. Careful literature searches were conducted by going through Google Scholar on the basis of radioprotection 40. papers selected based on protecting humans and animals from the effects of IR. The work outlined here suggests that there are many potential radiation protectors with different purposes and mechanisms. [Figure 1]
|Figure 1: Possible mechanism of natural radioprotectors against ionizing radiation-induced damage|
Click here to view
| Radioprotectors|| |
Radioprotective agents may be chemicals or drugs that reduce the harm caused when IR therapy is administered to living organisms. Determination of an effective and nontoxic radiation protector is an essential goal for radiation oncologists and basic radiobiologists. The most radioprotective substances to date are amino thiols and their derivatives include aminoethyl isothiouronium bromide hydrobromide (AET), sistemin, and amipocene (WR-2721). Some of these compounds have been used successfully to prevent radiotherapy complications in cancer patients and are believed to protect against radiation risks in clinical use and incidental radiation exposure scenarios. Despite current clinical use, amifostin has not been approved for use in clinical nuclear/radiation conditions. Side effects of amifostin include cost, limited use, and narrow duration, toxicity, effect on the central nervous system. Sulfasalazine (SAZ) is another compound that was reported to protect mice at 120 mg/kg without toxicity. At this dose, SAZ protected the plasmid DNA (pGEM-7Zf) from dissolution from the Fenton reaction, suggesting free radical scavenging as one of the possible mechanisms of radioactivity, but some levels of toxicity have also been observed. The practical applicability of most synthetic compounds was still limited due to their high toxicity. Ideal protective agents provide a high degree of protection against normal tissues, little or no protection against tumor cells, and most importantly, they must be nontoxic.
Because more effective and less toxic radioprotective substances could not be obtained from synthetic compounds, researchers had to focus on assessing the radioprotective potential of natural products. Therefore, worldwide research is underway on radioprotective drugs that do not cause cumulative or irreversible toxicity, provide effective long-term protection, remain stable for many years with long shelf life, and have all the essentials of an ideal radioprotective drug.
| Natural Radioprotectors|| |
Natural radiation protectors are plant compounds that protect normal (noncancerous) cells from damage from radiation therapy. Natural herbal products are nontoxic with proven therapeutic benefits and have been used to treat various diseases. Of the 1144 new drugs developed in the last 25 years, about 60% come from natural resources. To date, approximately 74 plant products have been tested for their radioprotective potential in a variety of in vitro and in vivo studies. Among them a few plants extract with their mode of action as a radio protector are mentioned in [Table 1]. The use of herbs and diet modulators, along with improved radiation to sensitize tumor cells with radiation, protected normal cells from radiation.,
|Table 1: List of various plants extract with their mode of action as a radioprotector|
Click here to view
| Need for the Natural Radioprotectors|| |
Radiation protectors are drugs or chemicals designed to reduce radiation damage in the human body, damaging IR such as gamma rays, X-rays, cosmic rays, and radiation from radionuclides such as uranium, strontium-90, thorium, cesium-137, radium, and radon. Therefore, radiation oncologists and biologists must research and develop pharmaceutically dynamic, efficient, nontoxic, effective, and easy-to-use radiation protectors to protect humans from this dangerous and destructive IR. An effective radiation protector must have the following characteristics: (i) In most tissues and organs, it provides comprehensive protection against the harmful effects of radiation with minimal side effects, (ii) It should have a long shelf life and be stable, and can easily be administered orally or intramuscularly, (iii) It should be accessible, economically feasible, and compatible with a wide variety of drugs during clinical treatment, (iv) Should be used in recommended doses during a wide range of available, economically viable, and clinical therapies that should be capable enough to reach the target organ and cross the blood-brain barrier, (v) In the event of an emergency, its effect should last for a long time.
Therefore, it can be said that the ideal radiation protector should be nontoxic, and, conversely, able to provide a high degree of protection to normal cells with minimal protection against tumor cells. Failure to develop efficient, effective, low-cost, low-toxic, or nontoxic radioprotectors has led researchers around the world to focus on natural products with radioactive protection potential. Natural herbal products have long been used to treat a wide variety of human diseases, and according to recent databases, about 400,000 medicines from natural sources have been reported.
The detailed descriptions of a few pure form of natural radioprotectors are as follows.
Apigenin (40, 5,7-trihydroxyflavone) is among the most abundant flavonoids and is found in large amounts in the leaves and stems of many fruits and vegetables, including black pepper, Chinese cabbage, broccoli, French peas, garlic, celery, tomato, guava, and onion. It is also found in drinks such as tea and wine produced from plant sources. Apigenin significantly reduces the frequency of IR-induced micronuclei. Furthermore, pre-IR treatment of Apigenin significantly reduces DNA damage in irradiated human peripheral blood lymphocytes, suggesting that Apigenin protects lymphocytes from IR-induced cytogenetic changes.
Bergenin is isolated from the Caesalpinia digyn root extract. These compounds activate various signaling pathways such as ERK1/2, MAP kinase, and SAPK/JNK pathway and induce the production of tumor necrosis factor alpha, nitric oxide, and interleukin (IL-12) in infected macrophages. Bergenin is a hydrolyzable tannin derivative with anti-liver toxicity, anti-ulcer, anti-HIV, anti-arrhythmia, anti-malarial, anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective, and immunomodulatory effects. Bergenin efficiently guards the cells against DNA damage, and its hydroxyl radical scavenging activity is considered important to protect against this DNA damage.
Methylxanthine derivatives caffeine has also shown protective activity against IR damage. Caffeine reduces infrared-induced skin damage associated with radiation therapy and provided radiation therapy for infrared-induced injuries. It has been shown to have radioprotective properties on the mouse BM chromosome before and after systemic IR administration.
Caffeine has both anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties, which may enhance its protective effect against IR-induced damage. In particular, caffeine purifies hydroxyl radicals and competes with oxygen for IR electronic electrons. Furthermore, caffeine restores the normal cell cycle after IR-induced arrest in the G2 phase of the mouse embryo, and this effect depends on protein synthesis. Finally, caffeine has been shown to reduce UV-induced proteins in melanoma cells.
| Chlorogenic Acid and Quinic Acid|| |
Chlorogenic acid (5-O-caffeinoquinic acid) is an ester form of caffeic acid and quinic acid and belongs to the group of hydroxycinic acid. Chlorogenic acid is an essential polyphenol extracted from a plant that is abundant in coffee beans and fruits. Quinic acid (1, 3, 4, 5-tetrahydroxyclohexanecarboxylic acid) is a polyphenol that occurs naturally in cocoa beans, wine, coffee, and fruits and can be chemically synthesized from chlorogenic acid. Coffee beans are the major source of chlorogenic and quinic acid. In one study, alkaline comet tests showed that quinic and chlorogenic acids protect against IR-induced DNA damage, indicating significant radiation-protective effects of these compounds. Coniferyl aldehyde and confederal alcohol were isolated from the shells of Eucommia ulmoides oliver and have been shown to induce heat shock transcription factor 1 (HSF1) and protect against IR damage. Simultaneous exposure of cells normal to CA and IR or the chemotherapy drug paclitaxel suggests a protective effect of CA that depends on HSF1 Ser326 phosphorylation. Furthermore, CA in mice inhibited IR-induced BM cell depletion and IR-related increase in terminal deoxynucleotide transferase, which is a DuP NP and labeling (TUNEL) positive BM cell. Studies using the A549 orthotopic lung tumor model have shown that CA does not affect IR-induced lung tumor nodule proliferation while normal lung tissue is protected from radiation. Taken together, these studies suggest that CA can be used to induce HSF1 and protect normal cells from damage caused by IR and/or chemotherapeutic agents.
| Delphinidin|| |
Delphinidin; an anthocyanidin agent, has potent anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects in other diverse biological activities. It is found abundantly in pigmented vegetables such as carrots, tomatoes, and red onions, as well as fruits such as cranberries and Concord grapes. Among the anthocyanins, delphinidin has the strongest antioxidant activity due to its many hydroxyl radicals. Delfinidine also protects normal tissue from high linear energy-transfer radiation, such as protons. Considering all these it has been reported that delphinidin is an efficient radioprotector.
| Epigallocatechin-3-Gallate|| |
Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) is a major component of polyphenols in green tea and is widely known as a potent free radical scavenger. Studies have shown that EGCG is effective in treating many disorders. In particular, EGCG has been shown to have anti-aging, anti-angiogenic, anti-arthritis, anti-viral, anti-inflammatory, and neuroprotective effects. EGCG has also been reported to increase levels of several antioxidant enzymes, including glutamate-cysteine ligase, superoxide dismutase (SOD), and heme oxygenase-1 (HO1), both in vivo and in vitro. In addition, EGCG can reduce the radiation sensitivity of cellular systems and improve DNA repair activity after catastrophic IR injury. The protective effect of EGCG against ultraviolet rays, which inhibit skin photoaging, has been widely reported. In addition, a mouse study reported that EGCG showed a radioprotective effect against IR-induced lesions measured along with the spleen.
| Hesperidin|| |
Hesperidin (hesperetin-7-rhamnoglucoside) is a flavone glycoside from the flavonoid family. Hesperidin is the predominant flavonoid in lemons and sweet oranges and has radiation-protective properties due to its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. In particular, it can prevent oxidative stress damage due to IR exposure to lung tissue. In addition, hysteripidin has been shown to protect lymphocytes from genetic damage that occurs in vitro by the radioactive tracer 99 mTc-MIBI. Furthermore, hesperidin inhibited the IR response in mice and showed antioxidant and anti-apoptotic activity in mouse testes damaged by IR.
| Lycopene|| |
Lycopene is a widespread dietary carotenoid found in red fruits and vegetables such as pink grapes, tomatoes, apricots, pink guava, papayas, and watermelons, and has exhibited significant protective effects against damage induced by radiation. The antioxidant properties of lycopene have been extensively evaluated in vitro and in vivo and are influenced by its ability to collect ROS. Previous reports have also suggested that lycopene can reduce IR damage by removing intact oxygen and releasing free radicals. Lycopene sham significantly reduced micronuclei, eccentric abnormalities, and occurrence in irradiated human lymphocytes and rat hepatocytes. Lipid peroxidation by IR was reduced by lycopene pretreatment and increased the activity of antioxidant enzymes, including SOD, antacid, and glutathione peroxidase.
| N-Acetyl Tryptophan Glucopyranoside|| |
The bacterial secondary metabolite, N-acetyl-tryptophan glycoside (NATG), was purified from the radiolabeled bacterium Bacillus subtilis. NATG pretends to have radiation protection by increasing the cytoprotective cytokines interferon-c, IL-17A, and IL-12 to prevent IR-induced apoptosis. Inhibition of NATG has also been shown to protect J774A.1 macrophages from IR-induced DNA damage along with increased antioxidant activity against IR-induced damage in murine macrophages.
| Sesamol|| |
Sesamol (3,4-methylenedioxyphenol), a component of sesame and sesame oil, is a natural phenolic antioxidant. Seasamol has strong ROS absorption and antioxidant properties and can protect against IR-induced DNA damage in human lymphocytes. Furthermore, cisamol significantly reduces IR-induced DNA damage in the mouse hematopoietic system, and reduces the genotoxicity of bone marrow cells. Further, it protects the gastrointestinal and hematopoietic systems against IR-induced injury in mice. The radioprotective effect of sesamol is affected by ROS purification and enhancing DNA repair activity.
| Lutein|| |
Lutein, a carotenoid that is devoid of any provitamin A activity, contains β-and ε-ionones. It is one of several carotenoids that are found naturally in plants such as egg yolk, green leafy vegetables (spinach, cabbage), animal fat, and corn. Lutein is found in both the macula and lens of the human eye and performs a dual function in both tissues by acting as a powerful antioxidant, and filtering high-energy blue light thus protect the eye from oxidative stress. Preradiation treatment with lutein has been reported to reduce radiation risk while reducing total antioxidant capacity, hematologic parameters, antioxidant enzyme levels, and maintaining MDA and GSH. In addition, the presence of β-and ε-hydroxyl motif can increase antioxidant levels and overall antioxidant capacity, protecting and enhancing membrane stabilization and thrombolytic potential, antioxidant enzyme activity, thereby increasing its radiation-protective properties.
| Conclusion and Future Directions|| |
Protecting humans and animals from the effects of IR radiation is an important issue in radiobiology and medicine. The work outlined here suggests that there are many potential radiation protectors with different purposes and mechanisms. Radioprotective agents inhibit or destroy free radicals, activate enzymes involved in DNA breakdown repair, stimulate the hematopoietic and immune systems, or interact with proteins in signaling and apoptosis pathways, resulting in IR-Induced trauma and/or IR-related syndromes. These radiation preservatives include both synthetic compounds and natural products. However, naturally occurring compounds have significant advantages for use in radiation protection. The main advantage of using naturally found compounds is that they have increased safety compared to synthetic compounds. In addition, natural products are effective in treating symptoms similar to radiation syndrome. Studies investigating these compounds as a novel approach to radiation protection have shown the efficacy of herbal compounds. Cellular and animal model research suggests that radioprotective agents can reduce DNA damage through various mechanisms; however, most of the available information in the literature suggest that Free radical scavenging role and free radical induction role of natural radio protectors. Further research is warranted to determine the radioprotector has an efficient therapeutic regime. In addition, the direction for future strategies relevant to the development of radio protectors is also addressed as a pivotal step for successful identification of radio protectors by drug discovery process. This emphasizes the need for not new on the strategies for the development of novel radio protectors for drug development.
Financial support and sponsorship
We'd like to thank our RAK Medical and Health Sciences University, Ras Al Khaimah, United Arab Emirates, for their encouragement and support.
Conflicts of interest
There are no conflicts of interest.
| References|| |
Liu Y, Yang M, Luo J, Zhou H. Radiotherapy targeting cancer stem cells “awakens” them to induce tumour relapse and metastasis in oral cancer. Int J Oral Sci 2020;12:19.
Wang H, Mu X, He H, Zhang XD. Cancer radiosensitizers. Trends Pharmacol Sci 2018;39:24-48.
Wirsdörfer F, Jendrossek V. The role of lymphocytes in radiotherapy-induced adverse late effects in the lung. Front Immunol 2016;7:591.
Rosen EM, Day R, Singh VK. New approaches to radiation protection. Front Oncol 2014;4:381.
Dowlath MJ, Karuppannan SK, Sinha P, Dowlath NS, Arunachalam KD, Ravindran B, et al.
Effects of radiation and role of plants in radioprotection: A critical review. Sci Total Environ 2021;779:146431.
Kamran MZ, Ranjan A, Kaur N, Sur S, Tandon V. Radioprotective agents: Strategies and translational advances. Med Res Rev 2016;36:461-93.
King M, Joseph S, Albert A, Thomas TV, Nittala MR, Woods WC, et al.
Use of amifostine for cytoprotection during radiation therapy: A review. Oncology 2020;98:61-80.
Kuruba V, Gollapalli P. Natural radioprotectors and their impact on cancer drug discovery. Radiat Oncol J 2018;36:265-75.
Dutta S, Wadekar RR, Roy T. Radioprotective natural products as alternative complements in oncological radiotherapy. Bol Latinoam Caribe Plant Med Aromat 2021;20:101-22.
Pooja S, Shetty P, Kumari N, Shetty K. Radioprotective and antioxidant potential of Tanacetum parthenium extract and synthetic parthenolide in Swiss albino mice exposed to electron beam irradiation. Int J Radiat Res 2021;19:145-54.
Sorokina M, Steinbeck C. Review on natural products databases: Where to find data in 2020. J Cheminform 2020;12:1-51.
Britto SM, Shanthakumari D, Agilan B, Radhiga T, Kanimozhi G, Prasad NR. Apigenin prevents ultraviolet-B radiation induced cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers formation in human dermal fibroblasts. Mutat Res Genet Toxicol Environ Mutagen 2017;821:28-35.
Dwivedi VP, Bhattacharya D, Yadav V, Singh DK, Kumar S, Singh M, et al.
The phytochemical bergenin enhances T helper 1 responses and anti-mycobacterial immunity by activating the MAP kinase pathway in macrophages. Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2017;7:149.
de Oliveira GA, da Silva Oliveira GL, Nicolau LA, Mafud AC, Batista LF, Mascarenhas YP, et al.
Bergenin from Peltophorum dubium
: Isolation, characterization, and antioxidant activities in non-biological systems and erythrocytes. Med Chem 2017;13:592-603.
Vieira AJ, Gaspar EM, Santos PM. Mechanisms of potential antioxidant activity of caffeine. Radiat Phys Chem 2020;174:108968.
Huang RX, Zhou PK. DNA damage response signaling pathways and targets for radiotherapy sensitization in cancer. Signal Transduct Target Ther 2020;5:60.
Mun GI, Kim S, Choi E, Kim CS, Lee YS. Correction to: Pharmacology of natural radioprotectors. Arch Pharm Res 2020;43:272-4.
Hall S, Desbrow B, Anoopkumar-Dukie S, Davey AK, Arora D, McDermott C, et al
. A review of the bioactivity of coffee, caffeine and key coffee constituents on inflammatory responses linked to depression. Food Res Int 2015;3:626-36.
Mun GI, Kim S, Choi E, Kim CS, Lee YS. Pharmacology of natural radioprotectors. Arch Pharm Res 2018;41:1033-50.
Santana-Gálvez J, Cisneros-Zevallos L, Jacobo-Velázquez DA. Chlorogenic acid: Recent advances on its dual role as a food additive and a nutraceutical against metabolic syndrome. Molecules 2017;22:E358.
Naveed M, Hejazi V, Abbas M, Kamboh AA, Khan GJ, Shumzaid M, et al.
Chlorogenic acid (CGA): A pharmacological review and call for further research. Biomed Pharmacother 2018;97:67-74.
Bułdak RJ, Hejmo T, Osowski M, Bułdak Ł, Kukla M, Polaniak R, et al.
The impact of coffee and its selected bioactive compounds on the development and progression of colorectal cancer in vivo
and in vitro
. Molecules 2018;23:E3309.
Kim SY, Lee HJ, Nam JW, Seo EK, Lee YS. Coniferyl aldehyde reduces radiation damage through increased protein stability of heat shock transcriptional factor 1 by phosphorylation. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2015;91:807-16.
Perrone D, Ardito F, Giannatempo G, Dioguardi M, Troiano G, Lo Russo L, et al.
Biological and therapeutic activities, and anticancer properties of curcumin. Exp Ther Med 2015;10:1615-23.
Verma V. Relationship and interactions of curcumin with radiation therapy. World J Clin Oncol 2016;7:275-83.
Xie J, Yong Y, Dong X, Du J, Guo Z, Gong L, et al.
Therapeutic nanoparticles based on curcumin and bamboo charcoal nanoparticles for chemo-photothermal synergistic treatment of cancer and radioprotection of normal cells. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2017;9:14281-91.
Chainoglou E, Hadjipavlou-Litina D. Curcumin analogues and derivatives with anti-proliferative and anti-inflammatory activity: Structural characteristics and molecular targets. Expert Opin Drug Discov 2019;14:821-42.
Jeong MH, Ko H, Jeon H, Sung GJ, Park SY, Jun WJ, et al.
Delphinidin induces apoptosis via cleaved HDAC3-mediated p53 acetylation and oligomerization in prostate cancer cells. Oncotarget 2016;7:56767-80.
Watson RR, Schönlau F. Nutraceutical and antioxidant effects of a delphinidin-rich maqui berry extract Delphinol®: A review. Minerva Cardioangiol 2015;63:1-12.
Kim HM, Kim SH, Kang BS. Radioprotective effects of delphinidin on normal human lung cells against proton beam exposure. Nutr Res Pract 2018;12:41-6.
Zhu W, Jia L, Chen G, Zhao H, Sun X, Meng X, et al.
Epigallocatechin-3-gallate ameliorates radiation-induced acute skin damage in breast cancer patients undergoing adjuvant radiotherapy. Oncotarget 2016;7:48607-13.
Avadhani KS, Manikkath J, Tiwari M, Chandrasekhar M, Godavarthi A, Vidya SM, et al.
Skin delivery of epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) and hyaluronic acid loaded nano-transfersomes for antioxidant and anti-aging effects in UV radiation induced skin damage. Drug Deliv 2017;24:61-74.
Fardid R, Ghorbani Z, Haddadi G, Behzad-Behbahani A, Arabsolghar R, Kazemi E, et al.
Effects of hesperidin as a radio-protector on apoptosis in rat peripheral blood lymphocytes after gamma radiation. J Biomed Phys Eng 2016;6:217-28.
Rezaeyan A, Fardid R, Haddadi GH, Takhshid MA, Hosseinzadeh M, Najafi M, et al.
Evaluating radioprotective effect of hesperidin on acute radiation damage in the lung tissue of rats. J Biomed Phys Eng 2016;6:165-74.
Shaban NZ, Zahran AM, El-Rashidy FH, Abdo Kodous AS. Protective role of hesperidin against γ-radiation-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in rat testis. J Biol Res (Thessalon) 2017;24:1-11.
Gupta S, Jawanda MK, Arora V, Mehta N, Yadav V. Role of lycopene in preventing oral diseases as a nonsurgical aid of treatment. Int J Prev Med 2015;6:70.
] [Full text]
Liu Y, Li J, Yan W, Hao L, Zhao E. Study on the ultrasonic-assisted extraction and antioxidant activities of lycopene from cherry tomatoes. Storage Process 2017;17:73-82.
Gajowik A, Dobrzyńska MM. The evaluation of protective effect of lycopene against genotoxic influence of X-irradiation in human blood lymphocytes. Radiat Environ Biophys 2017;56:413-22.
Malhotra P, Adhikari M, Singh SK, Kumar R. N-acetyl tryptophan glucopyranoside (NATG) provides radioprotection to murine macrophage J774A.1 cells. Free Radic Res 2015;49:1488-98.
Malhotra P, Adhikari M, Mishra S, Singh S, Kumar P, Singh SK, et al.
N-acetyl tryptophan glucopyranoside (NATG) as a countermeasure against gamma radiation-induced immunosuppression in murine macrophage J774A.1 cells. Free Radic Res 2016;50:1265-78.
Malhotra P, Gupta AK, Singh D, Mishra S, Singh SK, Kumar R. N-Acetyl-tryptophan glucoside (NATG) protects J774A.1 murine macrophages against gamma radiation-induced cell death by modulating oxidative stress. Mol Cell Biochem 2018;447:9-19.
Ruankham W, Suwanjang W, Wongchitrat P, Prachayasittikul V, Prachayasittikul S, Phopin K. Sesamin and sesamol attenuate H2
-induced oxidative stress on human neuronal cells via the SIRT1-SIRT3-FOXO3a signaling pathway. Nutr Neurosci 2021;24:90-101.
Kumar A, Choudhary S, Adhikari JS, Chaudhury NK. Sesamol ameliorates radiation induced DNA damage in hematopoietic system of whole body γ-irradiated mice. Environ Mol Mutagen. 2018;59:79-90.
Kumar A, Selvan TG, Tripathi AM, Choudhary S, Khan S, Adhikari JS, et al.
Sesamol attenuates genotoxicity in bone marrow cells of whole-body γ-irradiated mice. Mutagenesis 2015;30:651-61.
Khan S, Adhikari JS, Rizvi MA, Chaudhury NK. Radioprotective potential of melatonin against 60 Co γ-ray-induced testicular injury in male C57BL/6 mice. J Biomed Sci 2015;22:1-15.
Bosebabu B, Cheruku SP, Chamallamudi MR, Nampoothiri M, Shenoy RR, Nandakumar K, et al.
An appraisal of current pharmacological perspectives of sesamol: A review. Mini Rev Med Chem 2020;20:988-1000.
Vasudeva V, Tenkanidiyoor YS, Radhakrishna V, Shivappa P, Lakshman SP, Fernandes R, et al.
Palliative effects of lutein intervention in gamma-radiation-induced cellular damages in Swiss albino mice. Indian J Pharmacol 2017;49:26-33.
] [Full text]
Vasudeva V, Tenkanidiyoor YS, Shivappa P, Lakshman SP, Fernandes R, Patali KA. Assessment of membrane stabilization, antioxidant and thrombolytic potential of lutein an in-vitro
study. Int J Pharm Sci Res 2015;6:4478-83.
Poonacha SK, Bavabeedu SK, Nalilu SK, Pooja S, Bhat VS, Sanjeev G, et al
. Asparagus racemosus
root extract and isoprinosine exhibits radio-mitigating activity against ionizing radiation-induced detrimental effects in swiss albino mice. J Young Pharm 2020;12:226.
Jagetia GC, Venkatesh P. Radioprotection by oral administration of Aegle marmelos
(L.) Correa in vivo
. J Environ Pathol Toxicol Oncol 2005;24:315-32.
Miyanomae T, Frindel E. Radioprotection of hemopoiesis conferred by Acanthopanax senticosus
Harms (Shigoka) administered before or after irradiation. Exp Hematol 1988;16:801-6.
Sandeep D, Nair KK. Radioprotection by Acorus calamus
: Studies on in vivo
DNA damage and repair. Int J Low Radiat 2010;7:121-32.
Kumar M, Samarth R, Kumar M, Selvan SR, Saharan B, Kumar A. Protective effect of Adhatoda vascia
Nees against radiation-induced damage at cellular, biochemical and chromosomal levels in Swiss albino mice. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2007;4:343-50.
Batcioglu K, Yilmaz Z, Satilmis B, Uyumlu AB, Erkal HS, Yucel N, et al
. Investigation of in vivo
radioprotective and in vitro
antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of garlic (Allum sativum
). Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci 2012;16 Suppl 3:47-57.
Goyal PK, Gehlot P. Radioprotective effects of Aloe vera
leaf extract on Swiss albino mice against whole-body gamma irradiation. J Environ Pathol Toxicol Oncol 2009;28:53-61.
Gupta U, Jahan S, Chaudhary R, Goyal PK. Amelioration of radiation-induced hematological and biochemical alterations by Alstonia scholaris
(a medicinal plant) extract. Integr Cancer Ther 2008;7:155-61.
Maharwal J, Samarth RM, Saini MR. Radiomodulatory influence of Rajgira (Amaranthus paniculatus
) leaf extract in Swiss albino mice. Phytother Res 2003;17:1150-4.
Jagetia GC, Shirwaikar A, Rao SK, Bhilegaonkar PM. Evaluation of the radioprotective effect of Ageratum conyzoides
Linn. extract in mice exposed to different doses of gamma radiation. J Pharm Pharmacol 2003;55:1151-8.
Guruvayoorappan C, Kuttan G. Protective effect of Biophytum sensitivum
(L.) DC on radiation-induced damage in mice. Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol 2008;30:815-35.
Manu KA, Leyon PV, Kuttan G. Studies on the protective effects of Boerhaavia diffusa
L. against gamma radiation induced damage in mice. Integr Cancer Ther 2007;6:381-8.
Singh U, Kunwar A, Srinivasan R, Nanjan MJ, Priyadarsini KI. Differential free radical scavenging activity and radioprotection of Caesalpinia digyna
extracts and its active constituent. J Radiat Res 2009;50:425-33.
Joy J, Nair CK. Protection of DNA and membranes from gamma-radiation induced damages by Centella asiatica
. J Pharm Pharmacol 2009;61:941-7.
Prabhakar KR, Veerapur VP, Parihar KV, Priyadarsini KI, Rao BS, Unnikrishnan MK. Evaluation and optimization of radioprotective activity of Coronopus didymus
Linn. in gamma-irradiated mice. Int J Radiat Biol 2006;82:525-36.
Fabrigar JM, Porquis H. Radioprotective effect of Citrullus lanatus
rind extract against Xray irradiation in the Allium cepa
assay. Bull Environ Pharmacol Life Sci 2009;8:93-9.
Yogish ST, Vidya V, Vishakh, R, Shetty J, Peter AJ, Suchetha N. Radioprotective effects of diallyl disulphide and Carica papaya
(L.) leaf extract in electron beam radiation induced hematopoietic suppression. Cogent Biol 2016;2:1247607.
Jindal A, Soyal D, Sharma A, Goyal PK. Protective effect of an extract of Emblica officinalis
against radiation-induced damage in mice. Integr Cancer Ther 2009;8:98-105.
Veerapur VP, Prabhakar KR, Parihar VK, Kandadi MR, Ramakrishana S, Mishra B, et al. Ficus racemosa
stem bark extract: A potent antioxidant and a probable natural radioprotector. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2009;6:317-24.
González A, Atienza V, Montoro A, Soriano JM. Use of Ganoderma lucidum
) as radioprotector. Nutrients 2020;12:E1143.
Sisodia R, Singh S, Sharma KV, Ahaskar M. Post treatment effect of Grewia asiatica
against radiation-induced biochemical alterations in Swiss albino mice. J Environ Pathol Toxicol Oncol 2008;27:113-21.
Khedr MH, Shafaa MW, Abdel-Ghaffar A, Saleh A. Radioprotective efficacy of Ginkgo biloba and Angelica archangelica
extract against technetium-99m-sestamibi induced oxidative stress and lens injury in rats. Int J Radiat Biol 2018;94:37-44.
Shetty TK, Satav JG, Nair CK. Protection of DNA and microsomal membranes in vitro
by Glycyrrhiza glabra
L. against gamma irradiation. Phytother Res 2002;16:576-8.
Shetty TK, Satav JG, Nair CK. Radiation protection of DNA and membrane in vitro
by extract of Hemidesmus indicus
. Phytother Res 2005;19:387-90.
Sureshbabu AV, Barik TK, Namita I, Prem Kumar I. Radioprotective properties of Hippophae rhamnoides
(sea buckthorn) extract in vitro
. Int J Health Sci (Qassim) 2008;2:45-62.
You WC, Lin WC, Huang JT, Hsieh CC. Indigowood root extract protects hematopoietic cells, reduces tissue damage and modulates inflammatory cytokines after total-body irradiation: Does Indirubin play a role in radioprotection? Phytomedicine 2009;16:1105-11.
Baliga MS, Rao S. Radioprotective potential of mint: A brief review. J Cancer Res Ther 2010;6:255-62.
Bin-Meferij MM, El-Kott AF. The radioprotective effects of Moringa oleifera
against mobile phone electromagnetic radiation-induced infertility in rats. Int J Clin Exp Med 2015;8:12487-97.
Parihar VK, Prabhakar KR, Veerapur VP, Priyadarsini KI, Unnikrishnan MK, Rao CM. Anticlastogenic activity of morin against whole body gamma irradiation in Swiss albino mice. Eur J Pharmacol 2007;557:58-65.
Duan Y, Zhang H, Xie B, Yan Y, Li J, Xu F, et al.
Whole body radioprotective activity of an acetone-water extract from the seedpod of Nelumbo nucifera
Gaertn. seedpod. Food Chem Toxicol 2010;48:3374-84.
Baliga MS, Rao S, Rai MP, D'souza P. Radio protective effects of the Ayurvedic medicinal plant Ocimum sanctum
Linn. (Holy Basil): A memoir. J Cancer Res Ther 2016;12:20-7.
Benavente-García O, Castillo J, Lorente J, Alcaraz M. Radioprotective effects in vivo
of phenolics extracted from Olea europaea
L. leaves against X-ray-induced chromosomal damage: Comparative study versus several flavonoids and sulfur-containing compounds. J Med Food 2002;5:125-35.
Kumar A, Kumarchandra R, Rai R, Kumblekar V. Radiation mitigating activities of Psidium guajava
L. against whole-body X-ray-induced damages in albino Wistar rat model. 3 Biotech 2020;10:507.
Achel DG, Alcaraz-Saura M, Castillo J, Olivares A, Alcaraz M. Radioprotective and antimutagenic effects of Pycnanthus angolensis
Warb seed extract against damage induced by X rays. J Clin Med 2019;9:E6.
Kyriazi M, Yova D, Rallis M, Lima A. Cancer chemopreventive effects of Pinus maritima
bark extract on ultraviolet radiation and ultraviolet radiation-7,12, dimethylbenz(a)anthracene induced skin carcinogenesis of hairless mice. Cancer Lett 2006;237:234-41.
Bhattacharya S, Subramanian M, Roychowdhury S, Bauri AK, Kamat JP, Chattopadhyay S, et al.
Radioprotective property of the ethanolic extract of Piper betel
Leaf. J Radiat Res 2005;46:165-71.
Gangabhagirathi R, Joshi R. Antioxidant role of plumbagin in modification of radiation-induced oxidative damage. Oxid Antioxid Med Sci 2015;4:85-90.
Sisodia R, Singh S, Mundotiya C, Meghnani E, Srivastava P. Radioprotection of Swiss albino mice by Prunus avium
with special reference to hematopoietic system. J Environ Pathol Toxicol Oncol 2011;30:55-70.
Mathur A, Sharma J. Radioprotective role of Punica granatum
fruit rind extract: A biochemical study on mouse testis. Int J Radiat Res 2013;11:99-109.
Ding F, Zhang N, Wang Z, Qui J. The radioprotective effect of polyphenols from pinecones of Pinus koraiensis
and their synergistic effect with Auricularia auricula
-judae (Bull.) J. Schröt Polysaccharides. Starch Stärke 2019;71:1800009.
Prabhakar KR, Veerapur VP, Bansal P, Parihar VK, Reddy Kandadi M, Bhagath Kumar P, et al
. Antioxidant and radioprotective effect of the active fraction of Pilea microphylla
(L.) ethanolic extract. Chem Biol Interact 2007;165:22-32.
Kumar R, Singh PK, Arora R, Sharma A, Prasad J, Sagar R, et al.
Radioprotection by Podophyllum hexandrum
in the liver of mice: A mechanistic approach. Environ Toxicol Pharmacol 2005;20:326-34.
Verma P, Sharma P, Parmar J, Sharma P, Agrawal A, Goyal PK. Amelioration of radiation-induced hematological and biochemical alterations in Swiss albino mice by Panax ginseng
extract. Integr Cancer Ther 2011;10:77-84.
Lusiyanti Y, Alatas Z, Syaifudin M. Lack of radioprotective potential of ginseng in suppressing micronuclei frequency in human blood lymphocyte under gamma irradiation. HAYATI J Biosci 2015;22:93-7.
Londhe JS, Devasagayam TP, Foo LY, Ghaskadbi SS. Radioprotective properties of polyphenols from Phyllanthus amarus
Linn. J Radiat Res 2009;50:303-9.
Kumar A, Kumarchandra R, Rai R, Sanjeev G. Anticlastogenic, radiation antagonistic, and anti-inflammatory activities of Persea americana
in albino Wistar rat model. Res Pharm Sci 2017;12:488-99.
Goel HC, Bala M, Prasad J, Singh S, Agrawala PK, Swahney RC. Radioprotection by Rhodiola imbricata
in mice against whole-body lethal irradiation. J Med Food 2006;9:154-60.
Sancheti G, Goyal PK. Prevention of radiation induced hematological alterations by medicinal plant Rosmarinus officinalis
, in mice. Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med 2006;4:165-72.
Jagetia GC, Baliga MS. Syzygium cumini
(Jamun) reduces the radiation-induced DNA damage in the cultured human peripheral blood lymphocytes: A preliminary study. Toxicol Lett 2002;132:19-25.
Mohamed WA, Ismail SA, El-Hakim YM. Spirulina platensis
ameliorative effect against GSM 900-MHz cellular phone radiation-induced genotoxicity in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Comp Clin Pathol 2014;231719-1726.
Gandhi NM, Nair CK. Radiation protection by Terminalia chebula
: Some mechanistic aspects. Mol Cell Biochem 2005;277:43-8.
Patel A, Bigoniya P, Singh CS, Patel NS. Radioprotective and cytoprotective activity of Tinospora cordifolia
stem enriched extract containing cordifolioside-A. Indian J Pharmacol 2013;45:237-43.
] [Full text]
Pooja S, Shetty DP, Kumari, NS, Sharmila, KP, Bhat K. The comparative effect of medicinal herb feverfew with that of a synthetic parthenolide to assess the expression of inducible cyclo-oxygenase and anti-inflammatory activity. J Phar Res Int 2016;12:1-8.
Pooja S, Prashanth S, Suchetha KN, Jayaram SK. Antigenotoxic potential of Tanacetum parthenium
leaf extract and synthetic compound parthenolide against radiation-induced micronuclei formation and oxidative stress in Swiss Albino Mice. Int J Adv Sci Eng Technol 2017;5:56-9.
Pratheeshkumar P, Kuttan G. Protective role of Vernonia cinerea
L. against gamma radiation--induced immunosupression and oxidative stress in mice. Hum Exp Toxicol 2011;30:1022-38.
Castillo J, Benavente-García O, Lorente J, Alcaraz M, Redondo A, Ortuño A, et al.
Antioxidant activity and radioprotective effects against chromosomal damage induced in vivo
by X-rays of flavan-3-ols (Procyanidins) from grape seeds (Vitis vinifera
): Comparative study versus other phenolic and organic compounds. J Agric Food Chem 2000;48:1738-45.
Adaramoye OA, Popoola BO, Farombi EO. Effects of Xylopia aethiopica
(Annonaceae) fruit methanol extract on γ-radiation-induced oxidative stress in brain of adult male wistar rats. Biol Future 2010;61:250-61.