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Year : 2022  |  Volume : 14  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 140-146

A retrospective study on tuberculous lymphadenitis: A finding from multicenter referral hospitals

1 Discipline of Clinical Pharmacy, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang, Malaysia
2 Department of Clinical Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, Prince Sattam Bin Abdulaziz University, Al-Kharj, Saudi Arabia
3 Drug Regulatory Authority of Pakistan, Islamabad, Pakistan
4 Department of Medicine, MAHSA University, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Amer Hayat Khan
Discipline of Clinical Pharmacy, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800, Gelugor, Penang
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/jpbs.jpbs_473_21

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Background: Extrapulmonary tuberculosis represents about 14% of all cases of tuberculosis (TB) in Malaysia. The aim of the study includes the evaluation of sociodemographic factors, clinical manifestations, comorbidities among patients with tuberculous lymphadenitis and their treatment outcomes. Methods: The retrospective study was conducted from 2006 to 2008. Data on sociodemographic along with histopathological results were collected. The signs and symptoms were also recorded from TB registers, treatment cards, and TB medical personal files using the standard data collection tool. Among multiple variables, the significant factors identified by univariate analysis were included in the multivariate logistic regression to estimate the odds ratios with the 95% confidence intervals. The statistically significant P value was considered <0.05. Results: There were 348 (57%) males, and on the other hand, 262 (43%) females which shows almost equal incidence rate of lymphadenitis in both genders. The age group was observed from 2 to 83 years old. Therefore, the age group between 26 and 35 years showed 194 (31.8%) patients diagnosed with lymphadenitis and followed by 16–25 years (21%). The mean age was found as 34.3 ± 14.6 years were majorly reported with positive diagnosis. One hundred and ninety-six (32.1%) Malay population were found with tuberculous lymphadenitis followed by the Chinese population of 148 (24.3%). The other prominent races were Pilipino, Indonesians, and other expatriates. Geographically, patients were from 386 (63.3%) urban population were found positive for lymphadenitis and over 224 (36.7%) population of the rural region. The treatment outcome was observed 444 (72.8%) with successful treatment. The World Health Organization states the types of treatment failures, and accordingly, 85 (13.9%) patients were continued with the therapy that can be due to noncompliance or relapse of TB. Among the unsuccessful outcomes, 194 patients of age group 26–35 years, 65 (33.5%) were reported and 38 (29.7%) patients out of 128 between ages of 16–25 years. Blood test results showed erythrocyte sedimentation rate >10 in 280 (45.9%) patients. Therefore, among 280, there were 115 (41.1%) patients were found to have unsuccessful treatment showing very strong association with P < 0.001. Conclusion: The finding signifies that effect of weight loss on poor treatment outcomes' and active screening measures for patients with comorbidities are therefore recommended in patients with tuberculous lymphadenitis along with improvements in the diagnosis and early management of comorbidities complications. As young age group was found to have poor or unsuccessful treatment outcomes and required aggressive strategy together with educating patients can further increase the treatment success rate.

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