Journal of Pharmacy And Bioallied Sciences
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   Table of Contents - Current issue
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July-September 2021
Volume 13 | Issue 3
Page Nos. 291-334

Online since Wednesday, November 24, 2021

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ORIGINAL ARTICLES  

Self-medication survey among pharmacy students in Iraq p. 291
Muhannad R M Salih, Arwa Y Abd
DOI:10.4103/jpbs.JPBS_806_20  
Background: Self-medication (SM) is the self-administration of treatment without a medical prescription or consultation or guidance from a physician or a health-care provides. Aim and Objectives: This study aims at understanding the existing prevalence of self-medication (SM) and finding out underlying circumstances among pharmacy students of the two universities. Materials and Methods: A study was undertaken involving pharmacy students of two universities in Baghdad. The students' responses obtained from a self-administered questionnaire were analyzed to assess the prevalence and attitude of students toward SM. Results: The data obtained from a valid questionnaire form answered by 188 students revealed that 63.3% had indulged in SM, and 39.9% reported practicing on rare occasions. The majority (48.9%) relied on the information received from the pharmacist with 44.7% and 16% of them had used over-the-counter and prescription-only medicines, respectively. 54.8% of participants were against SM but reported that it could be used in rare situations. Conclusions: The prevalence of SM was high among study participants. Therefore, necessary steps are needed to create awareness about the irrational use of SM and prevent the sale of medicines without a prescription.
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Physical compatibility, antimicrobial activity, and stability of cefazolin combined with gentamicin or ethanol in sodium citrate as a catheter lock solution p. 298
Rinda Devi Bachu, Akshith Dass, Emily To, Sai H S Boddu, Rose Jung, Mariann D Churchwell
DOI:10.4103/jpbs.JPBS_619_20  
Background: Catheters provide vascular access for patients requiring intravenous treatments, but frequently are a source of infection and/or thrombosis. Instilling a solution of an antimicrobial agent with an anticoagulant into the catheter lumen may salvage-infected catheters. Objective: The aim is to evaluate the physical compatibility, antibacterial activity, and stability of varying combinations of cefazolin (10 mg/mL), 40% ethanol, 4% sodium citrate with or without gentamicin (1 mg/mL) as a catheter lock solution over 48 h. Methods: Admixtures were prepared using aseptic technique and stored under four conditions with or without light at 25°C or 37°C. Prepared admixtures were assessed for physical compatibility, antimicrobial susceptibility, and chemical stability in triplicate at 0, 24 and 48 h. Admixture physical compatibility was determined by visual clarity, pH, and ultraviolet (UV) spectroscopy. Antibacterial activity was determined using the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method. The chemical stability of cefazolin and gentamicin were assessed using high performance liquid chromatography and UV spectroscopy, respectively. Results: All admixtures maintained clarity for 48 h. All admixtures stored at 25°C and the admixture containing 10 mg/mL cefazolin-4% sodium citrate stored at 37°C sustained antimicrobial activity and were chemically stable. A significant change in pH, antimicrobial activity, cefazolin concentration (<95% of baseline), were observed in admixtures containing ethanol stored at 37°C after 24 h. Gentamicin concentrations remained stable throughout the study. Conclusion: The admixture of 10 mg/mL cefazolin-4% sodium citrate sustained antimicrobial activity over 48 h and was chemically stable. However, admixtures containing ethanol stored at 37°C showed incompatibility with decreased antibacterial activity and cefazolin degradation after 24 h.
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Cross sectional online survey to determine the prevalence, knowledge, attitude and practice of smoking tobacco among students of medical science college in Dammam, Saudi Arabia p. 305
Wasim Ahmad, Ayaz Ahmad, Mohammad Daud Ali, Yousif Amin Hassan, Raghad Abdullah R Albanai, Raghad Barrak Al-dossary, Ahlam Abdullatif Alabdullah
DOI:10.4103/jpbs.jpbs_28_21  
Objectives: The present study was conducted to examine the prevalence of tobacco smoking among students' of different departments of private medical science college at Dammam, as well as to assess students' attitude, practice, knowledge, and awareness towards smoking and its harmful effects. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed at Mohammed Al-Mana College for Medical Sciences (MACHS) in February 2020. Data were obtained through adopted pretested validated questionnaire based on the Global Adult Tobacco Survey. The questionnaire contains demographic details, smoking behavior, knowledge, and behavior attitude toward smoking. Results: A total of 388 students completed the questionnaire out of them 108 males (27.8%) and 280 females (76.2%), the prevalence ratio of tobacco use 19.84%. The prevalence ratio of female current smokers was 7.9%, whereas male 11.8%, even though the number of female participants were high. Female students had better knowledge in comparison with male students regarding the harmful effects of tobacco smoking on health (78.7% vs. 82.8%; P ≤ 0.001), and as a risk factor of brain thrombosis (59.2% vs. 60%; P ≤ 0.001), gastric ulcer (55.5% vs. 62.1%; P ≤ 0.001), asthma (62.9% vs. 72.1%; P ≤ 0.001), and lung cancer (81.4% vs. 86.7%; P ≤ 0.001). Conclusion: The prevalence of smoking tobacco was relatively low among MACHS students who had good general knowledge regarding the harmful effects of smoking tobacco. This study results showed the harmful effects of smoking and can be used as a basis for the development of tobacco education programs at MACHS and any other institution for providing professional support for students to quit smoking.
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Soft-chewable paracetamol tablets by melt granulation method: Formulation and characterization p. 312
Awis Sukarni Mohmad Sabere, Nur Anis Najlaa Mohd Suhaimi, Qamar Uddin Ahmed, Mohd Muzamir Mahat, Nazreen Che Roslan, Juzaili Azizi
DOI:10.4103/jpbs.JPBS_783_20  
Background: Oral drug delivery is the most preferred route for drug administration in the world, with tablets being one of the most common dosage forms. However, some people, particularly children and the elderly, have difficulty swallowing the tablets. Chewable tablets are the dosage form that can address the issue while also providing a valuable masking effect on drug taste, allowing patients to swallow the drugs more easily. Materials and Methods: In this study, the chewable tablets were manufactured using the melt granulation method, which resulted in tablets with a chewy texture. The tablets contained paracetamol as well as Arabic gum, starch, agar, and mannitol. Results: The drug release profiles for the fragmented form showed that 50% of the drug was released within 4 min and 100% was released within 30 min of the dissolution process. The intact form released nearly 90% of the drug within 2 h. Conclusion: Formulation 2 was determined as the best formulation. This tablets' formulation had passed all characterization tests and displayed a moderate hardness and chewy texture.
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Impact of drug use policy on the appropriate use of direct acting antiviral agents for Hepatitis C in Saudi Arabia p. 317
Ahmed Saqer Alotaibi, Nour Shamas, Umair Uddin Ansari, Faisal M Sanai, Ali Alshahrani, Ahmed Ibrahim Fathelrahman, Mohammed Ali Aseeri
DOI:10.4103/jpbs.jpbs_166_21  
Background: Ministry of National Guard–Health Affairs in Saudi Arabia developed a new policy for the use of direct antiviral agents (DAAs) for hepatitis C. The present study was conducted to evaluate prescribers' compliance and the impact of the policy on DAAs appropriate use. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted at King Abdul Aziz Medical City in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. The study compares patients' data during 1 year before and 1 year after policy initiation. The primary outcomes were compliance to monitoring parameters, appropriateness of treatment and treatment eligibility. Secondary outcomes included sustained virologic response at 12 weeks, documentation of potential drug–drug interactions and treatment costs. Independent samples t-test and Chi-square test were used when applicable. A P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: One hundred and three patients were included in analysis (46 before and 57 after policy). Prescriber compliance to baseline monitoring parameters was 67.4% before policy and 82.5% after-policy (P = 0.076). International normalized ratio (INR) was requested in 84.8% of cases before policy compared to 96.5% after-policy (P = 0.036). Treatment options offered to patients were appropriate in 52.2% of cases before policy and in 82.5% after-policy (P = 0.001). Conclusion: There is a significant improvement in the baseline monitoring of INR. Treatment options offered after policy implementation were significantly more appropriate.
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Retrospective assessment of the reporting of adverse drug reactions in a Malaysian clinical training center: A short communication p. 325
Ramadan M Elkalmi, Mohamed Hassan Elnaem, Nurmisaliza Mohd Sapar, Ali Blebil
DOI:10.4103/jpbs.JPBS_577_20  
Objectives: This study aimed to assess the completeness and quality of adverse drug reaction (ADR) reports that were submitted to the Pharmacovigilance Unit (PVU) in clinical training center (CTC), Faculty of Medicine, UiTM Sungai Buloh Campus. Materials and Methods: A retrospective study was conducted using all ADR reports that were submitted to the PVU in CTC from December 31, 2000, to December 31, 2018. The completeness was assessed by reviewing all the required elements to be filled in the ADR reports. The quality was assessed by investigating the required information in the ADR reporting form. Descriptive statistics have been used to present the findings. Key Findings: In a total of 31 reports that were submitted to the PVU in CTC, 98.9% of patient's information and 100% of ADR descriptions were completed. Suspected drug information and the reporter's details were completed by 52.2% and 79.6%, respectively. Of 58.0% of the information about seriousness recorded, 38.9% (n = 7) is mild, 44.4% (n = 8) is moderate, and 16.7% (n = 3) is severe. Among all the suspected medicines, drug class of antibiotics (32.4%, n = 12) is the most reported suspected drugs that caused ADR, followed by opioid analgesic (8.1%, n = 3) and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (8.1%, n = 3). Conclusion: Further efforts and relevant interventions should be considered to increase the reporting frequency and to enhance the completeness and the quality of the ADR reports in the study setting.
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LETTERS TO EDITOR Top

Getting access to the COVID-19 vaccine: What should be our approach? p. 331
Subodh Kumar, Manoj Kumar Saurabh
DOI:10.4103/jpbs.JPBS_521_20  
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Changing role of clinical pharmacology from laboratory to patient education and counseling p. 333
Samiksha Bhattacharjee, Amol N Patil
DOI:10.4103/jpbs.jpbs_32_21  
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