Journal of Pharmacy And Bioallied Sciences
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   Table of Contents - Current issue
July-September 2022
Volume 14 | Issue 3
Page Nos. 121-167

Online since Monday, September 19, 2022

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Meloxicam in combating clinical mastitis: Nanotechnology-driven hope and opportunities p. 121
Vaskuri G S Satya Sainaga Jyothi, Chanti Katta Babu, Rahul Kumar, Pankaj Kumar Singh, Dharmendra Kumar Khatri, Shashi Bala Singh, Jitender Madan
Mastitis has well-recognized harmful effects on dairy farm profitability. Furthermore, mastitis impairs the milk component synthesizing ability of secretary tissues. Various therapies are available for the treatment of clinical mastitis. Meloxicam exhibits preferential binding to Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) receptor and consequently generates fewer negative gastrointestinal side effects than nonspecific COX inhibitors such as flunixin meglumine and ketoprofen. Toward this end, research efforts directed at understanding the use of meloxicam alone and in combination with other antibiotics to improve milk quality and production. Therefore, in this review, we have highlighted the mechanism, biopharmaceutical challenges, and merits of meloxicam usage in dairy cattle mastitis. In addition, we also presented the integration of artificial neural network, in silico docking, and nanotechnology-driven topical drug delivery cargo as future opportunity for efficient delivery of meloxicam in the management of clinical mastitis.
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Safety and efficacy of clonazepam in the treatment of juvenile myoclonic epilepsy: A meta-analysis p. 126
Faisal Al-Otaibi
Background: Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME) is referred to as one of the most common epileptic syndromes. Several anti-epilepsy drugs (AEDs) have been developed and remain part of clinical intervention with varying safety and efficacy profiles. Comprehensive synthesis of the scientific evidence examining the safety and efficacy of clonazepam toward the treatment of JME was carried out in the study. Methods: A detailed scientific literature search was made utilizing the most relevant scientific studies published to date on the intervention of clonazepam in the management of JME. In this study, a detailed search was made in multiple databases, including PubMed, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), and Scielo databases. Confidence intervals among the studies and continuous measures, proportion, and risk factor analysis were determined using the MedCalC tool (Version 20.110) as per PRISMA guidelines. Results: A total of 6 studies out of 70 were found eligible for meta-analysis, where 186 JME patients were subjected to clonazepam intervention with controls. Clonazepam was reported effective in comparative analysis among six studies where P < 0.001. The result also shows a higher prevalence of JME in the female population compared to males (male versus female; 86/110). Efficacy and safety of clonazepam were reported significant as well. Conclusion: Clonazepam is effective AEDs for the management of JME. However, more clinical evidence requires for statistical validation of clinical efficacy.
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In Silico and In Vitro Investigation of Anti Helicobacter Activity of Selected Phytochemicals p. 132
Deniz Al Tawalbeh, Talal Aburjai, Qosay Al Balas, Ali Al Samydai
Introduction: Helicobacter pylori is Gram-negative helical bacteria that inhibit stomach mucosal lining and establish infection. Urease enzyme was confirmed to be pivotal target in which its suppression will prompt bacteria treatment and eradication. Methods: Series of naturally bioactive compounds were selected based on ethnobotanical and molecular modeling techniques with potential urease inhibitory effect. The selected phytochemical compounds were in-silico and in-vitro assayed against urease enzyme, minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and a synergistic effect was studied and cultured specifically for H. pylori. Results: Terpineol was considered as the most active compound with an IC50 of 1.443 μg/ml (R2 = 0.9374). The synergistic effect of terpineol and metronidazole indicated a possible additive effect (fractional inhibitory concentration result is 0.78) with improvement of MIC results for both terpineol and metronidazole. Conclusion: This study suggests that terpineol is best to be considered as a lead compound for H. pylori infection treatment and could be a potent inhibitor when combined with metronidazole targeting urease enzyme.
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A retrospective study on tuberculous lymphadenitis: A finding from multicenter referral hospitals p. 140
Syed Ghouse Mohiuddin, Syed Azhar Syed Sulaiman, Orwa Albitar, Muhammad Shahid Iqbal, Malik Obaidullah, Siti Maisharah Shaikh Ghadzi, Amer Hayat Khan, Abdul Razak Mutallif
Background: Extrapulmonary tuberculosis represents about 14% of all cases of tuberculosis (TB) in Malaysia. The aim of the study includes the evaluation of sociodemographic factors, clinical manifestations, comorbidities among patients with tuberculous lymphadenitis and their treatment outcomes. Methods: The retrospective study was conducted from 2006 to 2008. Data on sociodemographic along with histopathological results were collected. The signs and symptoms were also recorded from TB registers, treatment cards, and TB medical personal files using the standard data collection tool. Among multiple variables, the significant factors identified by univariate analysis were included in the multivariate logistic regression to estimate the odds ratios with the 95% confidence intervals. The statistically significant P value was considered <0.05. Results: There were 348 (57%) males, and on the other hand, 262 (43%) females which shows almost equal incidence rate of lymphadenitis in both genders. The age group was observed from 2 to 83 years old. Therefore, the age group between 26 and 35 years showed 194 (31.8%) patients diagnosed with lymphadenitis and followed by 16–25 years (21%). The mean age was found as 34.3 ± 14.6 years were majorly reported with positive diagnosis. One hundred and ninety-six (32.1%) Malay population were found with tuberculous lymphadenitis followed by the Chinese population of 148 (24.3%). The other prominent races were Pilipino, Indonesians, and other expatriates. Geographically, patients were from 386 (63.3%) urban population were found positive for lymphadenitis and over 224 (36.7%) population of the rural region. The treatment outcome was observed 444 (72.8%) with successful treatment. The World Health Organization states the types of treatment failures, and accordingly, 85 (13.9%) patients were continued with the therapy that can be due to noncompliance or relapse of TB. Among the unsuccessful outcomes, 194 patients of age group 26–35 years, 65 (33.5%) were reported and 38 (29.7%) patients out of 128 between ages of 16–25 years. Blood test results showed erythrocyte sedimentation rate >10 in 280 (45.9%) patients. Therefore, among 280, there were 115 (41.1%) patients were found to have unsuccessful treatment showing very strong association with P < 0.001. Conclusion: The finding signifies that effect of weight loss on poor treatment outcomes' and active screening measures for patients with comorbidities are therefore recommended in patients with tuberculous lymphadenitis along with improvements in the diagnosis and early management of comorbidities complications. As young age group was found to have poor or unsuccessful treatment outcomes and required aggressive strategy together with educating patients can further increase the treatment success rate.
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Should We Focus More on Teaching and Training Disaster Management in Health-care Colleges? An Insight into the Students' Knowledge, Attitude, and Readiness to Practice p. 147
Shi Li, Ali Hassan Gillani, Mohamed Izham Mohamed Ibrahim, Sumaira Omer, Yu Fang
Background: The critical aspects of risk management for students are providing knowledge, building positive attitudes, and readiness to practice. Our study aimed to assess Chinese health-care university students' knowledge (K), attitude (A), and readiness to practice (rP) regarding disaster medicine and preparedness. Materials and Methods: A survey was carried out using a self-administered disaster medicine and preparedness questionnaire. Three main outcome measures were K (22 items), A (16 items), and rP (11 items). Responses were scored and classified as high, moderate, and low. Descriptive and inferential statistics were performed for data analysis. Results: A total of 769 valid questionnaires were collected. The associations between K, A, and rP scores was significant, i.e., K–A scores (r = 0.449, P = 0.000), K–rP scores (r = 0.312, P = 0.000), and A–rP scores (r = 0.656, P = 0.000). Multiple linear regression analysis indicated direct low-to-moderate effects of gender, age, attitude, and knowledge on readiness to practice (R2 = 0.198; P < 0.001). Conclusions: The study discovered that most of the students had a moderate level of knowledge, moderate level of attitude, high level of readiness to practice, and a moderate level of total KArP. K, A, and rP were significantly correlated, and K and A were predictors for rP among the health-care students. The findings indicate the importance of health-care colleges for building students' knowledge, attitudes, and readiness to practice disaster medicine and preparedness before joining the profession.
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Awareness and utilization of unani medicine among the adult population from East Delhi: A cross sectional survey p. 157
Asim Ali Khan, Rajiv Janardhanan, Jugal Kishore, Aanchal Anant Awasthi, Shagufta Parveen, Shazina Saeed, Mohammad Shannawaz, William Selvamurthy
Objectives: To assess the awareness, practice, and utilization pattern of Unani medicine among the general population of Trilokpuri, East Delhi. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional, observational descriptive survey was conducted in New Delhi using pretested, predesigned, and structured questionnaire to assess the awareness and utilization pattern of Unani medicine on a sample size of 100 subjects. Result: Out of 100 subjects, 60% were males and 40% were females with mean age 38.96 ± 9.12 years, ranged between 18 and 65 years. The awareness about Unani medicine was found in 67% of adopted population, while 57% population among them preferred Unani system of medicine as a mode of treatment. Unani is preferred because of minimal side effects associated as reported by 47% users. On the other hand, among nonuser (n = 29), 48% population do not prefer Unani medicine because of its slow action. Very few (2.6%) users adopted Unani medicine exclusively, while most of them preferred Unani as an adjuvant with allopathic. Unani medicine is preferred mainly for the management of musculoskeletal disorders (35%), followed by GIT disorders (19%) and their related disorders. Conclusion: The awareness level regarding Unani medicine is good rather utilization of is relatively lower as compared to modern system of medicine. There is a need and scope for promotion of health education as well as improvement in the people's attitude towards Unani system of medicine.
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Knowledge, attitude, and practice of materiovigilance among nurses at a tertiary care hospital in South India: A cross-sectional study p. 162
Kiruthika Sivagourounadin, Priyadharsini Rajendran, Mirunalini Ravichandran
Background and Objective: Inadequate knowledge and underreporting of medical device-associated adverse events (MDAEs) were observed among health-care professionals (HCPs) in studies carried out in other countries. In India, HCP's knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) regarding materiovigilance have not been explored extensively. Hence, the present study was carried out to assess KAP of materiovigilance among nurses working in a tertiary care teaching hospital in South India. Materials and Methods: This is a descriptive, cross-sectional study conducted among nurses. A self-administered, validated questionnaire was distributed to 420 nurses. Data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences software version 21.0. Kruskal–Wallis test was used to compare KAP score of materiovigilance among the study participants. Results: A total of 400 (95.2%) responses were received. About 65.7% (n = 263) of nurses were having adequate knowledge about the various aspects of materiovigilance and 80.5% (n = 322) of nurses had a positive attitude toward MDAE reporting. However, only 18 (4.5%) of nurses have reported about MDAEs. Further, factors such as uncertainty on how to report a MDAE and concerns about their legal issues significantly led to underreporting of MDAEs. Conclusion: The transition of adequate knowledge and positive attitude to good practice of MDAE reporting was lacking among the study participants. Hence, with due consideration of these deficits and the various factors influencing MDAE reporting, it is necessary to conduct periodical workshops and training sessions for HCPs to enhance their spontaneous reporting of MDAEs.
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