Journal of Pharmacy And Bioallied Sciences

ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year
: 2021  |  Volume : 13  |  Issue : 6  |  Page : 1263--1265

Knowledge and awareness of jaw relation among dental interns: A questionnaire survey


Marciano John Vialli Paul1, P Manimaran2, C Dhinesh Kumar3, Eucharist Paul Simon4, Vindha Paul5,  
1 MDS Prosthodontics First year, JKK Nattraja Dental College and Hospital, Namakkal, Tamil Nadu, India
2 MDS Professor and HOD Prosthodontics, JKK Nattraja Dental College and Hospital, Namakkal, Tamil Nadu, India
3 MDS Reader Prosthodontics, JKK Nattraja Dental College and Hospital, Namakkal, Tamil Nadu, India
4 MDS Professor Registrar Prosthodontist, Armed Forces Hospital Southern Region, Khamis Mushyat, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
5 PhD (Management) Manager, Miracle Dental Care, Salem, India

Correspondence Address:
Vindha Paul
Miracle Dental Care, 108 Four Roads, Omalur Main Road, Salem - 636 009, Tamil Nadu
India

Abstract

Aims: This study aims to explore the awareness among the interns regarding the jaw relation procedures. Jaw relation is one of the most important criteria for the fabrication of complete dentures to provide a satisfactory oral function for the aging population. Settings and Design: The study design was a descriptive survey. Materials and Methods: A self-administered questionnaire was designed and distributed among 202 interns in three different colleges in Salem and Namakkal in Tamil Nadu using Stratified Proportionate Random Sampling Technique. The survey included a questionnaire with ten questions to assess the knowledge and awareness of jaw relation procedures among the interns. Statistical Analysis Used: The statistical tools used to analyze the levels of awareness among the interns were frequencies and percentage analysis. Chi-square tests and logistic regression were used to investigate the relationship between awareness among interns, with respect to gender, age, and complete dentures done, with the level of significance at P < 0.05 using Microsoft Excel and SPSS software version 23. Results: The awareness prevalent regarding jaw relation and its procedures among the respondents was 83%. There was a statistically significant relationship between maximum complete dentures done and awareness among interns (P < 0.001). Complete dentures made a significant contribution to the prediction of awareness (P < 0.0001). Conclusion: To improve the awareness among the interns increased educational programs, clinical training and greater patient exposure to the clinical application of jaw relation procedures to construct complete dentures are needed during their undergraduate education.



How to cite this article:
Paul MJ, Manimaran P, Kumar C D, Simon EP, Paul V. Knowledge and awareness of jaw relation among dental interns: A questionnaire survey.J Pharm Bioall Sci 2021;13:1263-1265


How to cite this URL:
Paul MJ, Manimaran P, Kumar C D, Simon EP, Paul V. Knowledge and awareness of jaw relation among dental interns: A questionnaire survey. J Pharm Bioall Sci [serial online] 2021 [cited 2022 Aug 14 ];13:1263-1265
Available from: https://www.jpbsonline.org/text.asp?2021/13/6/1263/330139


Full Text



 Introduction



Dental health determines the general health and well-being and there is an increasing need for oral rehabilitation among the geriatric patients. The quality of life is affected by lack of teeth and the main role of dentist is to restore mastication, function, esthetics, and speech. One of the major challenges that dental practitioners face today is caring for the edentulism in the geriatric patients. Complete denture prosthesis will be in high demand for several decades and it is therefore essential for recording jaw relation of the patients on sound principles and concepts. Improving the knowledge base through the clinical application and developing the skill through greater patient exposure before graduating dentistry is necessary to avoid complication and limited treatment success during later dental practice. The time devoted to the teaching of complete denture prosthodontics has been reduced as fewer complete denture cases have been completed by students before graduation, and hence there is a need for emphasis in the undergraduate curriculum on learning skills in complete denture prosthodontics.[1] As complete dentures are very essential for the aging population, the knowledge and awareness regarding jaw relation procedures is a vital factor. There is a critical need for the interns before they graduate dentistry to have adequate knowledge and awareness regarding the jaw relation procedures for the fabrication of complete dentures to become efficient Dentists.

Objectives

To study the level of awareness among the interns regarding jaw relation proceduresTo study the relationship between demographic characteristics and awareness regarding jaw relation procedures.

 Materials and Methods



This research study is descriptive in nature. A self-administered questionnaire was designed and distributed among 202 interns in three randomly selected dental colleges in Salem and Namakkal in Tamil Nadu using stratified proportionate random sampling technique. Ethical approval for conducting the survey was obtained, and the purpose and process of the study were explained. Male and female dental interns were included in the current study. The exclusion criteria were the undergraduate dental students, graduate dentists, and the postgraduate dentists from various specialties. Stratified sampling was done by dividing the population into smaller subgroups or strata. From each stratum, a random sample that is proportional to the size of the stratum was taken using the formula.[2]

[INLINE:1]

Validity and reliability

Content validity was checked by the specialists in the area to verify that the scale provided adequate coverage of the subject being tested. A pilot study was conducted among thirty interns, and the reliability of the questionnaire was tested for the distribution and consistency of response. The average inter-item correlation for the current study was 0.16.

Statistical analysis

The statistical tools used to analyze the levels of awareness among the interns were frequencies and percentage analysis. The histogram from the pilot study showed normal distribution and so parametric analysis such as logistic regression was conducted. Chi-square tests and logistic regression analyses were used to investigate the relationship between awareness among interns, with respect to gender, age, and complete dentures done, with the level of significance at P < 0.05 using Microsoft Excel and SPSS (IBM Corp. Released 2015. IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows, Version 23.0. Armonk, NY: IBM Corp)

 Results



The study population comprised 31% of males and 69% of females. 76% were 20–23 years. 21% were 24–26 years and 3% were 27–29 years. 15% completed 1–3 complete dentures. 64% completed 4–6 complete dentures and 21% completed 7–9 complete dentures.

Awareness regarding jaw relation procedures among the interns

Frequencies and percentage analysis were conducted to find out the levels of awareness among the interns. Two by 1 contingency Pearson Chi-square analyses was done to find the significant difference between the proportion of difference in the percentage [Table 1]. It has been significantly proved in the current study that the time devoted to teaching of complete denture prosthodontics is adequate in the current study as the interns had a highly statistical significant awareness level of 83%.{Table 1}

Relationship between demographic characteristics and awareness regarding jaw relation procedures

Two by 2 Pearson's Chi-square analysis was done to find out the relationship between demographic variables and awareness. Chi-square analysis indicates that there was a highly statistically significant relationship between complete dentures and awareness, whereas gender and age were not significant. It is to be observed that the respondents who had completed above four complete dentures had high awareness of above 72%.

Logistic regression analysis

A logistic regression model allows us to establish a relationship between a binary outcome variable awareness and a group of predictor variables complete dentures, gender, and age. Binary logistic regression indicates that complete dentures were a significant predictor of awareness toward jaw relation procedures (χ2 = 42.98, df = 3 and P = 0.0001 [<0.05]). The other two predictors age and gender were not significant. All the three predictors “explains” 32.2% of the variability of awareness toward jaw relation procedures. Complete dentures done is significant at the 5% level (complete dentures Wald = 30.98, P = 0.0001 [<0.05]). The odds ratio (OR) for complete dentures is 10.03 (95% confidence interval 4.454–22.590) with these values, we are 95% certain that the true value of the OR is between those units.

In the current study, there was a highly statistically significant relationship between complete dentures done and awareness through the Chi-square analysis and logistic regression analysis. This proves that the more number of complete dentures an intern does, higher will be the awareness toward jaw relation procedures for the fabrication of complete dentures.

 Discussion



Jain and Shigli have reported in their study that more than one anatomical landmark should be used for determining the occlusal plane.[3] Recording and transfer of jaw relation records to the articulator from the edentulous patient is essential to avoid time-consuming costly remakes due to the failure of complete dentures.[4] The muscles responsible for the physiological functions such as speaking, swallowing, and mastication along with the opening and closing muscles of the mandible aid in determining the vertical dimension of rest and occlusion.[5] Discacciati et al. reported in their study that, in the beginning of dental rehabilitations, esthetic and functional vertical dimension should be regarded as a fundamental and basic procedure as increased vertical dimension may lead to muscle and joint pain.[6] Decreased vertical dimension causes angular chelitis, facial distortion, temporomandibular joint damage, and loss of muscle tone.[7] Centric relation (CR) is the horizontal reference position that must be recorded for the edentulous patients under the guidance of the dentist for establishing centric occlusion.[8] Alvarez et al. reported in their study that, compared to the other methods, the swallowing method produced smaller mandibular posterior displacement.[9] He et al. have argued that an important causative factor for the development of temporomandibular joint dysfunction was discrepancy in the CR-maximum intercuspation.[10]

 Conclusion



The fundamental right for any human being is general and oral health. The awareness prevalent regarding jaw relation and its procedures among the respondents was 83%. From the results obtained, the interns experienced higher levels of awareness when they completed more number of complete denture cases. The dentists should provide the geriatric patients with stable and retentive complete dentures by applying theoretical knowledge that fulfills the patient's expectations on esthetics and function. The majority of the underprivileged geriatric patients will not be able to afford implant-retained or supported prosthesis and hence well-functioning complete dentures will continue to play an important role in the rehabilitation of the edentulous. The need for complete denture prosthesis will remain substantial for a long time to come and the knowledge and awareness of jaw relation procedures play a central role in the fabrication of complete dentures. There is a need for further study in this area among dental professionals excluding prosthodontists, and on a larger population and sample size.

Limitations

This study was undertaken only in three dental colleges and only among the interns since it was a short study and due to time constraints.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.

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