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   2011| July-September  | Volume 3 | Issue 3  
    Online since September 3, 2011

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Transvaginal ultrasonography in first trimester of pregnancy and its comparison with transabdominal ultrasonography
Aneet Kaur, Amarjit Kaur
July-September 2011, 3(3):329-338
DOI:10.4103/0975-7406.84432  PMID:21966152
Objectives : Examination of pregnant women in the first trimester with transvaginal ultrasonography with the aim to study various fetal development markers, e.g., gestation sac, yolk sac, fetal heart motion, CRL length, and fetal anatomy in both normal and abnormal pregnancies. Comparative evaluation of transvaginal ultrasonography vis-ΰ-vis transabdominal scanning in the study of first trimester of pregnancy and its complications. To assess the relative merits and demerits of transvaginal ultrasonography in comparison with the transabdominal technique. Materials and Methods : The study will be conducted on 50 females patients during the first trimester of pregnancy. The study population will consist of both normal and abnormal pregnancies. These patients will be included on the basis of suspicion of or proven pregnancy of duration up to 12 weeks from LMP. The evaluation of the patients will include the following: Record of patients obstetrical history and clinical examination, record of pregnancy test and relevant investigations, ultrasonic examination of pregnancy. (a) Transabdominal ultrasound scanning will be done with moderately distended bladder by using real time scanners with low frequency probe (3/3.5 MHz); (b) transvaginal sonography will be done with the real-time sector scanner using high-frequency endovaginal probe (5/7.5 MHz), after the patient voids urine. Relevant images will be taken by using the multiformat automatic camera. Results and Conclusions : In the study of 46 normal intrauterine pregnancies, TVS showed additional information in 36 patients (78.3%) as compared to TAS, in detection of gestation sac, yolk sac, double bleb sign, or better visualization of embryonic anatomy. In the abnormal pregnancy (n=17), TVS provided more information in 11 cases (64.9%), which included detection of embryonic demise, yolk sac, double bleb sign, or subchorionic hemorrhage. Regarding ectopic gestations (n=7), TVS gave additional information in 5 cases (71.4%) which included detection of ectopic fetal pole, yolk sac, decidual cast, adnexal mass, and fluid in cul de sac. In two cases, both TAS and TVS gave equal information. However, in 2 cases TAS demonstrated the extent of intraabdominal fluid better than TVS. The other advantages of TVS over TAS are that there is no need for the patient to have uncomfortably full bladder and time is saved from having to wait for bladder to fill. Thus, the potential preoperative patient can be kept fasting. TVS is also superior in obese patients, in patients with retroverted uterus and it also bypasses obstacles such as bone, gas filled bowel, and extensive pelvic adhesions. The limitations encountered with TVS were limited manoveuribility of probe and because of the unorthodox position and angle of the transducer, correct orientation was difficult initially.
  17,674 279 7
Antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic potential of Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench. in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats
V Sabitha, S Ramachandran, KR Naveen, K Panneerselvam
July-September 2011, 3(3):397-402
DOI:10.4103/0975-7406.84447  PMID:21966160
Objectives : The present investigation was aimed to study the antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic potential of Abelmoschus esculentus peel and seed powder (AEPP and AESP) in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Materials and Methods : Acute toxicity of AEPP and AESP was studied in rats at 2000 mg/kg dose and diabetes was induced in rats by administration of STZ (60 mg/kg, i.p.). After 14 days of blood glucose stabilization, diabetic rats received AEPP, AESP, and glibenclamide up to 28 days. The blood samples were collected on day 28 to estimate the hemoglobin (Hb), glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), serum glutamate-pyruvate transferase (SGPT), total protein (TP), and lipid profile levels. Results : In acute toxicity study, AESP and AESP did not show any toxicity or death up to a dose of 2000 mg/kg. Therefore, to assess the antidiabetic action, one by fifth and one by tenth dose of both powders were selected. Administration of AEPP and AESP at 100 and 200 mg/kg dose in diabetic rats showed significant (P < 0.001) reduction in blood glucose level and increase in body weight than diabetic control rats. A significant (P < 0.001) increased level of Hb, TP, and decreased level of HbA1c, SGPT were observed after the treatment of both doses of AEPP and AESP. Also, elevated lipid profile levels returned to near normal in diabetic rats after the administration of AEPP and AESP, 100 and 200 mg/kg dose, compared to diabetic control rats. Conclusion : The present study results, first time, support the antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic potential of A. esculentus peel and seed powder in diabetic rats.
  16,111 459 56
Biotechnology in the realm of history
Ashish Swarup Verma, Shishir Agrahari, Shruti Rastogi, Anchal Singh
July-September 2011, 3(3):321-323
DOI:10.4103/0975-7406.84430  PMID:21966150
  10,418 872 7
Role of phenolic compounds in peptic ulcer: An overview
Sabiha Sumbul, Mohd. Aftab Ahmad, Mohd. Asif , Mohd. Akhtar
July-September 2011, 3(3):361-367
DOI:10.4103/0975-7406.84437  PMID:21966156
Peptic ulcer is the most common gastrointestinal tract (GIT) disorder in clinical practice, which affects approximately 5-10% of the people during their life. The use of herbal drugs for the prevention and treatment of various diseases is constantly developing throughout the world. This is particularly true with regard to phenolic compounds that probably constitute the largest group of plants secondary metabolites. Phenolic compounds have attracted special attention due to their health-promoting characteristics. In the past ten years a large number of the studies have been carried out on the effects of phenolic compounds on human health. Many studies have been carried out that strongly support the contribution of polyphenols to the prevention of cardiovascular diseases, cancer, osteoporosis, neurodegenerative diseases, and diabetes mellitus, and suggest a role in the prevention of peptic ulcer. Polyphenols display a number of pharmacological properties in the GIT area, acting as antisecretory, cytoprotective, and antioxidant agents. The antioxidant properties of phenolic compounds have been widely studied, but it has become clear that their mechanisms of action go beyond the modulation of oxidative stress. Various polyphenolic compounds have been reported for their anti-ulcerogenic activity with a good level of gastric protection. Besides their action as gastroprotective, these phenolic compounds can be an alternative for the treatment of gastric ulcers. Therefore, considering the important role of polyphenolic compounds in the prevention or reduction of gastric lesions induced by different ulcerogenic agents, in this review, we have summarized the literature on some potent antiulcer plants, such as, Oroxylum indicum, Zingiber officinale, Olea europaea L., Foeniculum vulgare, Alchornea glandulosa, Tephrosia purpurea, and so on, containing phenolic compounds, namely, baicalein, cinnamic acid, oleuropein, rutin, quercetin, and tephrosin, respectively, as active constituents.
  10,707 450 91
Formulation and characterization of lipid-based drug delivery system of raloxifene-microemulsion and self-microemulsifying drug delivery system
Hetal Thakkar, Jitesh Nangesh, Mayur Parmar, Divyakant Patel
July-September 2011, 3(3):442-448
DOI:10.4103/0975-7406.84463  PMID:21966167
Background : Raloxifene, a second-generation selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) used to prevent osteoporosis in postmenopausal women is administered orally in the form of a tablet. The absolute bioavailability of the drug is only 2% because of extensive hepatic first-pass metabolism. Lipid-based formulations are reported to reduce the first-pass metabolism by promoting its lymphatic uptake. Materials and Methods : In the present investigation, microemulsion and Self-Microemulsifying Drug Delivery System (SMEDDS) formulations of Raloxifene were prepared. The prepared formulations were characterized for drug loading, size, transparency, zeta potential, Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and in vitro intestinal permeability. Results : The results indicated that high drug loading, optimum size and desired zeta potential and transparency could be achieved with both SMEDDS and microemulsion. The TEM studies indicated the absence of aggregation with both the systems. The in vitro intestinal permeability results showed that the permeation of the drug from the microemulsion and SMEDDs was significantly higher than that obtained from the drug dispersion and marketed formulation. Conclusion : Lipid based formulations such as microemulsion and Self Microemulsifying drug delivery systems are expected to increase the oral bioavailability as evidenced by the increased intestinal permeation.
  8,271 474 48
Coenzyme Q10: The essential nutrient
Rajiv Saini
July-September 2011, 3(3):466-467
DOI:10.4103/0975-7406.84471  PMID:21966175
  7,865 629 42
Development and characterization of nanosuspensions of olmesartan medoxomil for bioavailability enhancement
Hetal Paresh Thakkar, Bindesh Vishnubhai Patel, Sneha Piyush Thakkar
July-September 2011, 3(3):426-434
DOI:10.4103/0975-7406.84459  PMID:21966165
Background : Olmesartan medoxomil (OLM), an anti-hypertensive agent administered orally has absolute bioavailability of only 26% due to the poor aqueous solubility (<7.75 μg/ml). The present investigation aimed at enhancing the oral bioavailability of OLM by improving its solubility and dissolution rate by preparing nanosuspensions. Materials and methods : The nanosuspensions of OLM were prepared using media milling technique followed by its lyophilization using mannitol as a cryoprotectant. Various formulation as well as process parameters were optimized in order to achieve desirable size and saturation solubility. Characterization of the prepared nanosuspension was done with respect to particle size, zeta potential, saturation solubility, dissolution rate, morphology study (TEM), in-vitro and exvivo drug diffusion study. Evaluation of the crystalline state before and after particle size reduction was done by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD). Results : The results indicated that the initial crystalline state is preserved following particle size reduction and that the saturation solubility, dissolution velocity and diffusion rate of the drug from the nanosuspension is significantly higher than that of the plain drug suspension as well as from the marketed tablet formulation. Conclusion : Nanosuspension seems to be a promising approach for bioavailability enhancement because of the simple method of its preparation and its universal applicability.
  7,442 583 31
Endocannabinoid system in cardiovascular disorders - new pharmacotherapeutic opportunities
Pedro Cunha, Ana M Romão, Filipa Mascarenhas-Melo, Helena M Teixeira, Flávio Reis
July-September 2011, 3(3):350-360
DOI:10.4103/0975-7406.84435  PMID:21966155
The long history of Cannabis sativa had its development stimulated and oriented for medicine after the discovery and chemical characterization of its main active ingredient, the 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (9-THC). Consequently, a binding site for 9-THC was identified in rat brains and the first cannabinoid receptor (CB1) was cloned, followed by the CB2 and by the discover of two endogenous agonists: anandamide and 2-arachidonoyl glycerol. Cannabinoid receptors, endocannabinoids and the enzymes that catalyze its synthesis and degradation constitute the endocannabinoid system (ECS), which plays an important role in the cardiovascular system. In vivo experiments with rats have demonstrated the action of anandamide and 2-AG on the development of atherosclerotic plaque, as well as an effect on heart rate, blood pressure, vasoactivity and energy metabolism (action in dyslipidemia and obesity). Recent studies with an antagonist of CB1 receptors showed that the modulation of ECS can play an important role in reducing cardiovascular risk in obese and dyslipidemic patients. Similarly, studies in rats have demonstrated the action of CB2 receptors in adhesion, migration, proliferation and function of immune cells involved in the atherosclerotic plaque formation process. The evidence so far gathered shows that the modulation of ECS (as agonism or antagonism of its receptors) is an enormous potential field for research and intervention in multiple areas of human pathophysiology. The development of selective drugs for the CB1 and CB2 receptors may open a door to new therapeutic regimens.This review article aims to address the key findings and evidences on the modulation of ECS, in order to prospect future forms of therapeutic intervention at the cardiovascular level. A recent, emerging, controversial and of undoubted scientific interest subject, which states as a potential therapeutic target to reach in the 21 st century.
  6,521 130 13
Dissolution behavior of β-cyclodextrin molecular inclusion complexes of aceclofenac
Kamal Dua, Kavita Pabreja, MV Ramana, Vinny Lather
July-September 2011, 3(3):417-425
DOI:10.4103/0975-7406.84457  PMID:21966164
The objective of the present investigation was to study the effect of β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) on the in vitro dissolution of aceclofenac (AF) from molecular inclusion complexes. Aceclofenac molecular inclusion complexes in 1:1 and 1:2 M ratio were prepared using a kneading method. The in vitro dissolution of pure drug, physical mixtures, and cyclodextrin inclusion complexes was carried out. Molecular inclusion complexes of AF with β-CD showed a considerable increase in the dissolution rate in comparison with the physical mixture and pure drug in 0.1 N HCl, pH 1.2, and phosphate buffer, pH 7.4. Inclusion complexes with a 1:2 M ratio showed the maximum dissolution rate in comparison to other ratios. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry studies indicated no interaction between AF and β-CD in complexes in solid state. Molecular modeling results indicated the relative energetic stability of the β-CD dimer-AF complex as compared to β-CD monomer-AF. Dissolution enhancement was attributed to the formation of water soluble inclusion complexes with β-CD. The in vitro release from all the formulations was best described by first-order kinetics (R2 = 0.9826 and 0.9938 in 0.1 N HCl and phosphate buffer, respectively) followed by the Higuchi release model (R 2 = 0.9542 and 0.9686 in 0.1 N HCl and phosphate buffer, respectively). In conclusion, the dissolution of AF can be enhanced by the use of a hydrophilic carrier like β-CD.
  6,131 279 29
Pharmacological screening of Coriandrum sativum Linn. for hepatoprotective activity
A Pandey, P Bigoniya, V Raj, KK Patel
July-September 2011, 3(3):435-441
DOI:10.4103/0975-7406.84462  PMID:21966166
Objective : Coriandrum sativum (Linn.), a glabrous, aromatic, herbaceous annual plant, is well known for its use in jaundice. Essential oil, flavonoids, fatty acids, and sterols have been isolated from different parts of C. sativum. The plant has a very effective antioxidant profile showing 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, lipoxygenase inhibition, phospholipid peroxidation inhibition, iron chelating activity, hydroxyl radical scavenging activity, superoxide dismutation, glutathione reduction and antilipid peroxidation due to its high total phenolic content with the presence of constituents like pyrogallol, caffeic acid, glycitin, etc. Materials and Methods : This study was aimed at investigating the hepatoprotective activity of C. sativum against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4), with estimation of serum serum glutamyl oxaloacetic acid transaminase (SGOT), serum glutamyl pyruvate transaminase (SGPT), alkaine phosphatase (ALP) and bilirubin, and with liver histopathology. Results : Ethanolic extract was found to be rich in alkaloids, phenolic compounds and flavonoids, and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) fingerprinting showed the presence of iso-quercetin and quercetin. C. sativum signifies hepatoprotection by reducing the liver weight, activities of SGOT, SGPT, and ALP, and direct bilirubin of CCl 4 intoxicated animals. Administration of C. sativum extract at 300 mg/kg dose resulted in disappearance of fatty deposit, ballooning degeneration and necrosis, indicating antihepatotoxic activity. Conclusion : The results of this study have led to the conclusion that ethanolic extract of C. sativum possesses hepatoprotective activity which may be due to the antioxidant potential of phenolic compounds.
  4,971 259 25
Simultaneous determination of related substances of telmisartan and hydrochlorothiazide in tablet dosage form by using reversed phase high performance liquid chromatographic method
Sutirtho Mukhopadhyay, Kiran Kadam, Laxman Sawant, Dhanashree Nachane, Nancy Pandita
July-September 2011, 3(3):375-383
DOI:10.4103/0975-7406.84441  PMID:21966158
Objective : Telmisartan is a potent, long-lasting, nonpeptide antagonist of the angiotensin II type-1 (AT 1 ) receptor that is indicated for the treatment of essential hypertension. Hydrochlorothiazide is a widely prescribed diuretic and it is indicated for the treatment of edema, control of essential hypertension and management of diabetes insipidus. In the current article a new, accurate, sensitive, precise, rapid, reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) method was developed for determination of related substances of Telmisartan and Hydrochlorthiazide in tablet dosage form. Materials and Methods : Simultaneous determination of related substances was performed on Kromasil C 18 analytical column (250 × 4.6 mm; 5΅m pertical size) column at 40°C employing a gradient elution. Mobile phase consisting of solvent A (solution containing 2.0 g of potassium dihydrogen phosphate anhydrous and 1.04 g of Sodium 1- Hexane sulphonic acid monohydrate per liter of water, adjusted to pH 3.0 with orthophosphoric acid) and solvent B (mixture of Acetonitrile: Methanol in the ratio 80:20 v/v) was used at a flow rate of 1.0 ml min−1 . UV detection was performed at 270 nm. Results : During method validation parameter such as precision, linearity, accuracy, specificity, limit of detection and quantification were evaluated, which remained within acceptable limits. Conclusions : HPLC analytical method is linear, accurate, precise, robust and specific, being able to separate the main drug from its degradation products. It may find application for the routine analysis of the related substances of both Telmisartan and Hydrochlorthiazide in this combination tablets.
  4,913 254 9
Patterns of glycemic control using glycosylated hemoglobin in diabetics
Arunpreet Singh Kahlon, Rambha Pathak
July-September 2011, 3(3):324-328
DOI:10.4103/0975-7406.84431  PMID:21966151
Aim : Till now estimation of blood glucose is the highly effective method for diagnosing diabetes mellitus but it provides a short-term picture of control. More evidence is required to prove that plasma glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin levels together gives a better estimate of glycemic control and compliance with treatment. Indian diabetes risk score (IDRS) is a simplified screening tool for identifying undiagnosed diabetic subjects, requires minimum time, and effort and can help to considerably reduce the costs of screening. Objective : To study patterns of glycemic control using glycosylated hemoglobin in diabetic patients. To find out correlation between levels of plasma glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin in diabetics and to calculate IDRS of the study population. Materials and Methods : A cross sectional study was conducted among 300 known diabetic patients attending outpatient department of a rural medical college in Haryana, India. Following standard procedures and protocols FPG and glycosylated hemoglobin were measured to find out a pattern of glycemic control in them after taking their written and informed consent. A correlation between the levels of glycosylated hemoglobin and fasting blood glucose was also calculated. These patients were made to fill a performa and their demographic and clinical risk factors were noted and based on this, their IDRS was calculated. This was done to validate the IDRS in Indian rural population. Results : Fifty-two percent of the population had fasting plasma glucose level between 125-150 mg/dl, 21% had this level between 151-175 mg/dl. Thirteen percent of the study subjects had HbA1C between 6.5-7.5, more than half (57.3%) had this value between 7.5-8.5, 12% and 18% had values between 8.5-9.5 and 9.5-10.5, respectively. Twelve percent of the participants had HbA1C level higher than 10.5. Correlation of fasting plasma glucose level and HbA1C was also studied and found that correlation coefficient came out to be .311. This correlation was found to be statistically significant ( P = .007). Sixty-five percent of the case had IDRS higher than 60. Conclusions : Glycaemic control in diabetics can be better assessed with glycosylated hemoglobin and FPG together. A positive correlation between FPG and HbA1c allows for the use of HbA1c along with FPG in diagnosing type 2 DM but the two should not be used interchangeably. IDRS can be used as a screening tool for diabetes.
  4,657 144 9
Antinociceptive effect of an ethanolic extract of the aerial parts of Hilleria latifolia (Lam.) H. Walt. (Phytolaccaceae)
Eric Woode, Wonder K.M. Abotsi
July-September 2011, 3(3):384-396
DOI:10.4103/0975-7406.84445  PMID:21966159
Background : Hilleria latifolia (Lam.) H. Walt. (Phytolaccaceae) is a perennial herb used in Ghanaian traditional medicine for the treatment of various painful conditions. Little scientific evidence exists in literature on the effect of this plant on pain. Materials and Methods : The present study examined the antinociceptive effect of the ethanolic extract of the aerial parts of H. latifolia in chemical (acetic acid-induced abdominal writhing, glutamate, formalin, and capsaicin tests) and thermal (tail immersion test) behavioral pain models in rodents. The possible mechanisms of the antinociceptive action were also assessed with various antagonists in the formalin test. Results : The H. latifolia extract (HLE) together with morphine and diclofenac (positive controls), showed significant antinociceptive activity in all the models used. The antinociceptive effect exhibited by HLE in the formalin test was partly or wholly reversed by the systemic administration of naloxone, theophylline, and atropine. Glibenclamide, ondansetron, yohimbine, nifedipine, and NG -l-nitro-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME), however, did not significantly block the antinociceptive effect of the extract. HLE, unlike morphine, did not induce tolerance to its antinociceptive effect in the formalin test after chronic administration; morphine tolerance did not also cross-generalize to HLE. Interestingly, also, the chronic concomitant administration of HLE and morphine significantly suppressed the development of morphine tolerance. Conclusion : Together, these results indicate that HLE produces dose-related antinociception in several models of chemical and thermal pain, without tolerance induction, through mechanisms that involve an interaction with adenosinergic, muscarinic cholinergic, and opioid pathways.
  4,552 135 20
The relation between QT interval and T-wave variables in hypertensive patients
Ioana Mozos, Corina Serban
July-September 2011, 3(3):339-344
DOI:10.4103/0975-7406.84433  PMID:21966153
Background : The standard 12-lead ECG (electrocardiogram) continues to be the most frequently recorded noninvasive test in medicine. A prolonged ECG QT interval and Tpeak-Tend (Tpe) interval are predictors of ventricular arrhythmia and sudden cardiac death. Aim : The aim of this study is to analyze the relation between QT interval and T-wave variables in hypertensive patients, with and without left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH). Materials and Methods : Fifty-nine consecutive patients with grade 2 essential hypertension were included in the study. They underwent standard 12-lead ECG, and QT intervals: QTmax (the maximal duration of the QT interval in the 12 ECG leads), QTc (heart rate corrected QTmax), QTm (mean QT interval), QTII (the QT interval in lead DII), QTcII (heart rate corrected QTII), and QTd (QT dispersion); and T-wave variables: T0e (T wave duration), T0em (mean T0e), Tpe, Tpem (mean Tpem), Ta (T wave amplitude), and Tam (mean Ta) were manually assessed. LVH was diagnosed using both echocardiography and the ECG criteria. Results : QTc was prolonged in 41 patients (69%). Multiple regression analysis revealed a significant association between QT intervals and T-wave variables: QTmax and Tpe ( P = 0.015), QTd and Tpe (P = 0.022) and Ta (P = 0.004), and Tpe with QTd and T0e (P < 0.05). A moderate but significant correlation was found between Tpe and QTmax, Tpe and QTII, and Ta and QTd. A prolonged QTc was more prevalent in hypertensive patients with LVH (85%), compared to hypertensive patients without LVH (50%). QTm, QTd, QTII, Tpe, Tpem were significantly elevated ( P < 0.05) in patients with LVH. Conclusions : Hypertension is associated with an increased prevalence of prolonged QT intervals. QT intervals and T-wave variables are closely connected in hypertensive patients. QTm, T0em, Tpem, and Tam, do not provide significant additional information compared to QTmax, T0e, Tpe, and Ta. Left ventricular hypertrophy is associated with prolonged QT interval and Tpeak-Tend interval in hypertensive patients.
  4,464 103 21
Study of antinociceptive activity of SSRI (fluoxetine and escitalopram) and atypical antidepressants (venlafaxine and mirtazepine) and their interaction with morphine and naloxone in mice
Pranav Sikka, Sadhna Kaushik, Gyanendra Kumar, Seema Kapoor, VK Bindra, KK Saxena
July-September 2011, 3(3):412-416
DOI:10.4103/0975-7406.84454  PMID:21966163
Objective : to study the probable site of antinociceptive action of SSRI (fluoxetine, escitalopram) and atypical antidepressants (mirtazapine, venlafaxine) and their interaction with morphine and naloxone. Materials and Methods : the study was conducted on albino mice (25-35 grams) of either sex. Different doses of morphine (0.5 and 1 mg/kg), fluoxetine (2, 5 and 10 mg/kg), venlafaxine (30, 40 and 50 mg/kg), mirtazapine (3, 5 and 7 mg/kg) and escitalopram (2.5, 5 and 10 mg/kg) were administered subcutaneously to obtain their subanalgesic doses using tail flick analgesiometer. Tail flick latencies were obtained at 15, 30, 60 and 120 min. after drug administration. Naloxone (1 mg/kg) was administered 10 minutes prior to test drug for testing antagonism. Observations : fluoxetine (5 and 10 mg/kg), mirtazapine (5 and 7 mg/kg) and venlafaxine (40 and 50 mg/kg) were found to have antinociceptive activity but not at lower doses. Escitalopram failed to show any antinociceptive activity at any of the doses used. The antinociceptive effect of all the drugs was antagonized by naloxone (1 mg/kg). Further, subanalgesic doses of fluoxetine, mirtazapine and venlafaxine showed analgesic activity with suboptimal dose of morphine (0.5 mg/kg). Result and conclusion : fluoxetine, mirtazapine and venlafaxine have antinociceptive activity whereas escitalopram doesn't; their site of action seems to be the same as that of opioid analgesics ('mue' receptors). However, other pathways (cholinergic, histaminic, noradrenergic, GABAergic) may be involved in mediation of their analgesic activity, deserving further elucidation. Results apparently show that these drugs may be useful in the management of pain as monotherapy or in combination with other opioids.
  4,345 148 14
Drug advertisements published in Indian Medical Journals: Are they ethical?
Jaykaran Charan, Preeti Yadav, Deepak Saxena, ND Kantharia
July-September 2011, 3(3):403-406
DOI:10.4103/0975-7406.84449  PMID:21966161
Context : It is observed in studies done for western medical journals that insufficient information related to drug is usually provided in the drug advertisements published in them. Aims : As data for advertisements published in Indian Medical Journals were lacking, this study was designed with the aim of evaluating drug advertisements published in Indian Medical Journals for adequacy of information on drug and references given to support the claim made in the advertisements. Settings and Design : Cross-sectional survey. Methods and Materials : All medical journals related to clinical practice subscribed by the Central Library of Government Medical College, Surat, (Indian Journal of Pediatrics [IJP], Indian Pediatrics [IP], Journal of the Association of Physicians of India [JAPI], Journal of Indian Medical Association [JIMA], Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine [IJCCM], Indian Journal of Medical and Pediatric Oncology [IJMPO], Indian Journal of Gastroenterology [IJG], Indian Journal of Ophthalmology [IJO], and Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology of India [JOGI] were evaluated for adequacy of reporting of various parameters in drug advertisements published in these journals on the basis of "World Heath Organization (WHO)" criteria. References mentioned to support claims were also evaluated. Statistical Analysis Used : Descriptive statistics was used to describe data as frequencies, percentages, and 95% confidence interval around the percentage. Results : Generic name was mentioned in 90% advertisements. Indications were mentioned in 84% advertisements. Dose, precautions, and contraindications were mentioned in 24%, 17%, and 16% advertisements, respectively. Adverse effects and postal address of pharmaceutical company was mentioned in 19% and 74% advertisements, respectively. Price was mentioned in only 5% advertisements. Only 28% claims were supported by references. Most common references were Journal articles (75%). Conclusion : Drug advertisements published in Indian Medical Journals are poor in reporting various parameters according to WHO criteria.
  3,199 169 6
Ethnic differences in the prevalence of polymorphisms in CYP7A1, CYP7B1 AND CYP27A1 enzymes involved in cholesterol metabolism
Vera Dias, V Ribeiro
July-September 2011, 3(3):453-459
DOI:10.4103/0975-7406.84465  PMID:21966169
It is well known that drug disposition and response are greatly determined by the activities of drug metabolizing enzymes, which are polymorphic. Some of these polymorphisms are clinically relevant and presented an ethnic-dependent pattern of distribution. The characterization of the genetic distribution of different populations allows the selection of therapeutic options in accordance with the genetic background, with the objective to avoid adverse reactions and inefficacy of the treatment. In this work, we studied selected genetic polymorphisms in drug metabolizing enzymes in three different ethnic groups - Portugal, Mozambique and Colombia. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) genotyping methods were developed for drug metabolizing enzymes, namely, cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase (CYP7A1) (−203A>C, −346C>T, −496C>T, N233S, G347S), sterol 27-hydroxylase (CYP27A1) (R164W, A169V, D273N, V400A) and oxysterol 7α-hydroxylase (CYP7B1) (−116C>G, R324H, 1774C>T) to characterize the allelic distribution of these polymorphisms among three different ethnic/geographic origins. A total of 12 CYP7A1, CYP27A1 and CYP7B1 genetic variants were genotyped in a sample of 92 Portuguese, 151 Mozambican and 91 Colombian subjects. The variants N233S in CYP7A1 and 1774C>T in CYP7B1 were not detected in any population studied. The promoter polymorphisms in CYP7A1 (−203A>C, −346C>T, −496C>T) had high frequency in the three ethnic groups. G347S (CYP7A1), R164W, A169V and V400A (CYP27A1) were present in a low frequency but with a similar distribution in the three ethnic groups. Significant differences were observed for D273N (CYP27A1), −346C>T (CYP7A1), −116C>G and R324H (CYP7B1)Our results demonstrate a high variability of drug metabolizing enzymes between the different populations analyzed, indicating that at least some of these polymorphisms are ethnic specific.
  3,002 80 4
Sociodemographic variables of contraceptive practice in Sikkim
YD Chankapa, Dechenla Tsering, Sumit Kar, Mausumi Basu, Ranabir Pal
July-September 2011, 3(3):368-374
DOI:10.4103/0975-7406.84439  PMID:21966157
Objectives : The objective was to assess sociodemographic characteristics of men who use contraceptive and to compare them with men whose wives use contraceptive. Materials and Methods : Study design: A population-based cross-sectional study was performed. Study setting: It was performed in rural setting of the Sang PHC and Pakyong PHC service areas in Sikkim, India. Study participants: A total of 596 currently married men enrolled in the eligible couple registers. Interventions: No interventions occurred. Measurements: Sociodemographic correlates of contraceptive use were analyzed: occupation, religion, ethnicity, literacy, age, loss of children, and distance from health facility. Results : The use of contraceptive was high among the cultivators - men (44.45%), spouse (36.01%) followed by persons in Government service, respectively, 31.49% and 31.55%. Hindu men (55.42%), women (69.25%), and other backward communities (OBC) men (47.53%) and their wives (52.31%) were the majority users. A significantly higher number of users of contraceptive were literate men (72.33%) and their wives (86.17%) (χ2 =0.021, P> 0.05). Highest use was found in men and women (44.47%) in the 35 years and above (43.83) age group. But this difference was not significant. With the increase in the number of losses of children the contraceptive use declined among men and their spouses. Contraceptive users were higher at distances 1 hour and above from the health center compared to others. Conclusions : The finding of the research indicated that sociodemographic correlates determine the magnitude of the contraceptive use among couples in a rural community. A research agenda should define factors at both macro and micro levels that interact to adversely impinge on reproductive health outcomes.
  2,804 145 3
Role of family and peers in the initiation and continuation of smoking behavior of future physicians
Mausumi Basu, Palash Das, Sukumar Mitra, Srijit Ghosh, Ranabir Pal, Subrata Bagchi
July-September 2011, 3(3):407-411
DOI:10.4103/0975-7406.84452  PMID:21966162
Background : Globally researchers have long back noted that the trend of substance use was on the rise particularly in the student population. Objective : To find out the prevalence and determinants of smoking practices among undergraduate medical students. Materials and Methods : A cross-sectional study was conducted among undergraduate medical (MBBS) students of a tertiary care medical college using a predesigned and pretested semi-structured self-administered anonymous questionnaire. Results : Among 182 participants, 55 (30%) were smokers; 85.45% were regular smokers; majority in the age group 20-22 years (70%); mostly males (98%). No significant difference was observed among urban and rural students, and religion had no association. The practice of smoking for last 6 months to 1 year was in 43.6% and 40% smoked less than 6 months. Half of them (50.9%) smoked 5-9 cigarettes per day. Peer pressure was significantly high in smokers (83.6%); 42% had other addictions. The effect of parental smoking on smoking habits of the participants was quite evident among smokers (82%), which was significantly higher than nonsmokers (χ2=63.49, P<0.05). Peer pressure was the most important risk factor (57.69%) of initiation of smoking habit followed by parental influence (16.49%). Among morbidities of smokers, 60.6% were suffering from regular cough, 6% from bronchitis, and 2% had asthma. Conclusions : Our survey conducted on budding doctors surprisingly showed that undergraduate medical students smoke so much.
  2,746 124 4
Fingolimod: The first oral drug approved by food and drug administration; A breakthrough in treatment of multiple sclerosis
Manish Singh, Goutham Cugati, Pratibha Singh, Ajai Kumar Singh
July-September 2011, 3(3):460-461
DOI:10.4103/0975-7406.84467  PMID:21966171
  2,759 97 4
Antihyperlipidemic and antiatherogenic activities of Terminalia pallida Linn. fruits in high fat diet-induced hyperlipidemic rats
MT Sampathkumar, RB Kasetti, SA Nabi, P Renuka Sudarshan, S Swapna, C Apparao
July-September 2011, 3(3):449-452
DOI:10.4103/0975-7406.84464  PMID:21966168
Hyperlipidemia contributes significantly in the manifestation and development of atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease (CHD). Although synthetic lipid-lowering drugs are useful in treating hyperlipidemia, there are number of adverse effects. So the current interest has stimulated the search for new lipid-lowering agents with minimal side effects from natural sources. The present study was designed to investigate the antihyperlipidemic and antiatherogenic potentiality of ethanolic extract of Terminalia pallida fruits in high fat diet-induced hyperlipidemic rats. T. pallida fruits ethanolic extract (TPEt) was prepared using Soxhlet apparatus. Sprague-Dawley male rats were made hyperlipidemic by giving high fat diet, supplied by NIN (National Institute of Nutrition), Hyderabad, India. TPEt was administered in a dose of 100 mg/kg.b.w./day for 30 days in high fat diet-induced hyperlipidemic rats. The body weights, plasma lipid, and lipoprotein levels were measured before and after the treatment. TPEt showed significant antihyperlipidemic and antiatherogenic activities as evidenced by significant decrease in plasma total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels coupled together with elevation of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels and diminution of atherogenic index in high fat diet-induced hyperlipidemic rats. There was a significantly reduced body weight gain in TPEt-treated hyperlipidemic rats than in the control group. The present study demonstrates that TPEt possesses significant antihyperlipidemic and antiatherogenic properties, thus suggesting its beneficial effect in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases.
  2,578 223 4
Nonsignificant P values cannot prove null hypothesis: Absence of evidence is not evidence of absence
Jaykaran , Deepak Saxena, Preeti Yadav, ND Kantharia
July-September 2011, 3(3):465-466
DOI:10.4103/0975-7406.84470  PMID:21966174
  2,480 115 5
The prevalence of alcohol consumption among the students newly enrolled at a public university
Yuri Silva Toledo Brandão, Divanise Suruagy Correia, Maria Stella Jakeline Alves de Farias, Thallyta Maria Tavares Antunes, Laís Alves da Silva
July-September 2011, 3(3):345-349
DOI:10.4103/0975-7406.84434  PMID:21966154
Background : Alcohol is the number one toxic substance consumed by people of all age groups, which makes its use a public health problem. The overall trend shows that university students are those who suffer the most pressure. Objective : To assess the prevalence of alcohol use among students newly enrolled at a public university in Alagoas, Brazil. Materials and Methods : We conducted an analytical sectional study at the Federal University of Alagoas, with 1435 (44% of total) newly enrolled students of all courses in 2006. They answered a questionnaire based on the CAGE. Some points such as sex, age, marital status, course, housing, family characteristics and how drugs fit into in the student life were studied with the resources of EpiInfo version 3.3.2. The survey was approved by the Research Ethics Committee of the Federal University of Alagoas (number 000878/2005-17). Results : Of the group studied, 95.9% lived with family and 87.6% reported ever drinking alcohol at some time in their life. Of all the respondents, 55.4% of men reported having the habit of drinking with friends or colleagues (Odds = 0.71; CI = 0.58-0.88; P -value = 0.00088). Among all respondents, 17.7% of male students and 9.8% females skipped class after using alcohol (Odds = 0.52; CI = 0.38-0.72; P -value = 0.000023). The transition from adolescence to youth and study time at university is marked by greater vulnerability to alcohol abuse. The family is decisive for the initiation of alcohol use, and the university is a factor that increases the possibility of maintaining the practice. The fact that not all students were present in the classroom at the time of the application questionnaire may have limited the search because this was a sectional study. Conclusion : Alcohol consumption in this university is similar to that in other higher education institutions in the world, which is a cause for concern, since the external lesions are accentuated with the practice of using alcohol, characterizing the risk of violence.
  2,390 57 9
Oral sex and oral cancer: A virus link
Rajiv Saini
July-September 2011, 3(3):467-468
DOI:10.4103/0975-7406.84472  PMID:21966176
  2,209 113 1
Cure for HIV: New possibility on horizon
Anchal Singh, Udai Pratap Singh, Ajit Varma, Ashish Swarup Verma
July-September 2011, 3(3):461-464
DOI:10.4103/0975-7406.84468  PMID:21966172
  2,128 93 1
Periodontitis and rheumatoid arthritis: Inflammatory relationship
Rajiv Saini
July-September 2011, 3(3):464-464
DOI:10.4103/0975-7406.84469  PMID:21966173
  2,088 93 5
Oral health links breast cancer
Rajiv Saini
July-September 2011, 3(3):468-468
DOI:10.4103/0975-7406.84473  PMID:21966177
  1,970 81 -
2-Benzamido-3-(4-bromophenyl) acrylic acid
Kapish Madaan, Tarawanti Verma, Darpan Kaushik, Nancy , Nanjan Mahadevan
July-September 2011, 3(3):460-460
DOI:10.4103/0975-7406.84466  PMID:21966170
  1,765 91 1